Building Construction

Are you looking for the latest Building Construction WAEC Syllabus? Then see it here.

Below is this year’s WAEC syllabus for Building Construction. Note that this syllabus is for both internal and external candidates.

Building Construction WAEC Syllabus


There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken.

Papers 1 and 2 shall be composite paper to be taken in one sitting.


This will consist of forty multiple-choice objective questions, all of which are to be answered in 45 minutes for 40 marks.


This will consist of five short-structured essay questions. Candidates will be required to answer any four in1 hour for 60 marks.


This will be a practical test.  It will consist of two sections, Sections A and B. The paper will take 2½ hours and will carry 100 marks.

The following sections are available:

Section A:

This will be for candidates in Nigeria, Sierra Leone and The Gambia only. It will be on BUILDING DRAWING and shall consist of four questions, including a compulsory one.  Candidates will be required to answer the compulsory question and any two of the other questions.

Section B:

Section B will be for candidates in Ghana only. It will consist of six essay questions, including a compulsory one.

Candidates will be required to answer the compulsory question and any three of the other questions.


Here is the Building Construction WAEC Syllabus for the year 2023.

1. Introduction to Building

(i)     Definition of building

(ii)    Classification and types

(iii)    Introduction to National Building Codes. (Building regulations and Byelaw requirements)

2. Building Construction and Construction Team

(i)     Definition, purpose and procedures for building construction

(ii)    Parties in the construction team.  (Client’s team, contractor’s team and statutory personnel).

(iii)   Function of the team members.

(iv)   Relationship of the parties.

3. Safety Practices.

(i)     Definition of safety, rules and regulation.

(ii)    Hazards in the workshop and construction site.

(iii)   Causes and method of accident prevention.

(iv)   Safety equipment and measures at the construction site.

(v)    First aid equipment, procedures, and safety wear.

(vi)   Safety in working with dangerous equipment and materials (electricity, scaffolding,         formwork, cement, roof, etc).

4. Basic tools, equipment and machines

(i)    Identification and functions of basic.

(ii)    Tools and equipment.

(iii)    Care of tools and equipment.

5. Site clearing and levelling

(i)     Operations involved in site clearing.

(ii)     Tools and equipment for site clearing and levelling.

(iii)     Basic site levelling operations.

6. Site organization and layout

(i)      Preliminary operations in building construction.

(ii)     Procedure for site layout.

(iii)    Location, boundary lines, hoarding, hutments and access road.

7. Setting out

(i)       Methods of setting out.  (3:4:5 method, Builders’ square method).

(ii)      Tools and equipment for setting out.

(iii)    Procedures for setting out.

8. Building Drawing

(i)      Use of drawing tools and simple exercises on plane geometry in relation to building.

(ii)     Building drawing symbols

(iii)    Scales used in building and their application on site.

(iv)    Production drawings and interpretations (Plans, Elevations, sections and details).

(v)    Special details (Detailing building elements including doors and windows schedule).

(vi)    Scaling (Enlargement, pictorial and perspectives).

(vii)   Definitions and use of Auto-CADD.

9. Excavation and earthwork.

(i)      Classifications, types and properties of soil.

(ii)     Definition and function of excavation.

(iii)    Methods of excavations.

(iv)    Tools, equipment and plant used for excavation.

(v)     Solution to excavation problems (Earthwork support, timbering battering and dewatering).

(vi)     Safety rules during excavations.

10. Foundation

(i)        Definition, purpose and functional requirement of the foundation.

(ii)       Types of foundation.

(iii)       Factors that determine the choice of foundation.

11. Ground Floors

(i)         Types, functions and functional requirements of the ground floor.

(ii)         Methods of construction ground floor.

(iii)        Definition of the basement.

(iv)        Explain the differences between a building with a basement and one without a basement.

(v)         Problems relating basement in a building.

12. Suspended floors

(i)          Definition and functions of the upper floor

(ii)         Methods of construction of concrete floors and timber upper floors.

13. Concrete

(i)          Definition and types of concrete.

(ii)         Materials for concrete.

(iii)        Definitions, types, components and manufacture of cement. Properties and uses of cement, including other alternatives to cement products, e.g., Pozzolana, Pulverize fuel Ash (P.F.A.), Rice husk ash (R.H.A), etc

(iv)       Types and uses of aggregates (other aggregates such as palm kernel shell) and periwinkle, etc.

(v)         Types and uses of reinforcements.

(vi)         Properties and characteristics of concrete

(vii)        Process of concrete production.

(viii)       Types of concrete tests.

14. Walls

(i)        Definition, types and functions of walls

(ii)       Definition, types and properties of walling materials. (including locally sourced materials).

(iii)     Manufacturing processes of walling materials (clay, brick, blocks and concrete blocks).

(iv)     Sizes of blocks and bricks.

(v)      Mortar mixes for brick.

(vi)     Methods of wall construction

(vii)    Timber wall construction.

(viii)    Definition and function of wall openings.

(ix)      Methods of constructing wall opening.

(x)       Functions of lintels and arches.

15. Doors and windows

(i)        Definition, functions and types of doors and windows.

(ii)       Methods of mixing doors and window frames.

16. Staircases

(i)        Definition, classification, types and uses of stairs.

(ii)       Materials used for the construction of stairs.

(iii)      Materials used for finishing staircases.

17. Plumbing installations and drainage system.

(i)     Types of fitting in plumbing and sanitary works.

(ii)     Materials for plumbing works and fittings.

(iii)    Types of sanitary appliances.

(iv)     Soil and waste appliances.

(v)      Installation of sanitary appliances.

(vi)     Terms used in drainage works.

(vii)     Principles and functional requirements of a drainage system.

(viii)    Types of a drainage system.

(ix)      Types of drainage materials (pipes and fittings).

(x)       Methods of laying and testing drain lines.

(xi)      Description of septic and soakaway (inspection chamber, manhole, etc.).

18. Electrical installation and solar energy system.

(i)        Electrical symbols, installation terms and materials.

(ii)       Identification and uses of electrical wiring materials.

(iii)      Types of electrical wiring.

(iv)      Definition, functions and components of solar energy systems.

19. Roofs

(i)        Definition, purpose and types of roof.

(ii)        Functional requirements of roof.

(iii)       Materials used for roofs.

(iv)       Roof covering materials.

(v)        Protection of roof from wind, rain, lightning, etc.

20. Finishes

(A)       Floors:

(i)        Types and characteristics of floor finishes.

(ii)        Methods of laying floor finishes.

(iii)       Uses of floor finishes.

(iv)       Care and maintenance of floor finishes.

(B)       Walls

(i)        Types and characteristics of wall finishes

(ii)      Plastering and rendering

(iii)     Types of rendering

(iv)      Methods of applying plastering and rendering mix.

(C)      Ceiling:

(i)        Types and functions of ceiling finishes.

(ii)        Ceiling finishing materials.

21. External Work.

(i)         Types of fence, materials for fencing and construction of a fence.

(ii)         Types of gates, fixing of gates and production of gates.

(iii)        Types and materials for construction of access roads.

(iv)        Construction of access road.

(v)         Needs and materials for landscaping.

(vi)        Procedures for landscaping.

22. Types of Business Organization and Ways of Raising Capital.

(i)         Principles and Management of Business Organization in the building industry.

(ii)         Types of Business Organization in the Building Industry.

(iii)        Types and sources of Capital.

23. Book Keeping

(i)        Book Keeping in small-scale businesses.

(ii)       Books of original entries.

24. Contract Work

(i)       Definition and types of contract.

(ii)      Contract documents.

(iii)     Parties to a contract.


1 Stephen Emmitt and Christopher A. Gorse. Barry’s Introduction to Construction in Buildings Blackwell Publishing
2 M. O. Obande Blocklaying and Concreting Longman Publishing Company
3 R. Barry The Construction of Buildings VolsI– V Granada
4 Ivor H. Seeley Building Technology Palgrave
5 S. C. O. A. Ezeji Building Construction
6 Nash Brickwork Vols 1 – 3
7 R.  Chudley Building Construction Handbook Billing & Sons Ltd.
8 W. B. Mckay Building Construction Vols 1 – 4
9 Roger Greeno Principles of Construction
10 Adesokan and  M. O. Adeniyi Building Construction for Senior Secondary Schools Vols 1 – 3 (Ilesanmi)
11 R. Chuelley Construction Technology Vols 1 – 4 Longman
12 C. M. H. Barritt Advanced Building Construction Vols 1 & 2 Longman

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