Building Construction Waec Syllabus

Below is this years Waec Syllabus for Building Construction. Note that this syllabus is for both internal and external candidates.

Aims and Objectives

No published Aims & Objectives.

Scheme of Examination

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken.

Papers 1 and 2 shall be composite paper to be taken in one sitting.


This will consist of forty multiple-choice objective questions, all of which are to be answered in 45 minutes for 40 marks.


This will consist of five short-structured essay questions. Candidates will be required to answer any four in1 hour for 60 marks.


This will be a practical test.  It will consist of two sections, Sections A and B. The paper will take 2½ hours and will carry 100 marks.

The following sections are available:

Section A:

This will be for candidates in Nigeria, Sierra Leone and The Gambia only. It will be on BUILDING DRAWING and shall consist of four questions, including a compulsory one.  Candidates will be required to answer the compulsory question and any two of the other questions.

Section B:

Section B will be for candidates in Ghana only. It will consist of six essay questions, including a compulsory one.

Candidates will be required to answer the compulsory question and any three of the other questions.

Detailed Building Construction Syllabus

  1. Introduction to Building
    • Definition of building
    • Classification and types
    • Introduction to National Building Codes. (Building regulations and Byelaw requirements)
  2. Building Construction and Construction Team
    • Definition, purpose and procedures for building construction
    • Parties in the construction team.  (Client’s team, contractor’s team and statutory personnel).
    • Function of the team members.
    • Relationship of the parties
  3. Safety Practices
    • Definition of safety, rules and regulation.
    • Hazards in the workshop and construction site.
    • Causes and method of accident prevention.
    • Safety equipment and measures at the construction site.
    • First aid equipment, procedures, and safety wear.
    • Safety in working with dangerous equipment and materials (electricity, scaffolding, formwork, cement, roof, etc.).
  4. Basic tools, equipment and machines
    • Identification and functions of basic.
    • Tools and equipment.
    • Care of tools and equipment.
  5. Site clearing and levelling
    • Operations involved in site clearing.
    • Tools and equipment for site clearing and levelling.
    • Basic site levelling operations
  6. Site organization and layout
    • Preliminary operations in building construction.
    • Procedure for site layout.
    • Location, boundary lines, hoarding, hutments and access road.
  7. Setting out
    • Methods of setting out.  (3:4:5 method, Builders’ square method).
    • Tools and equipment for setting out.
    • Procedures for setting out
  8. Building Drawing
    • Use of drawing tools and simple exercises on plane geometry in relation to building.
    • Building drawing symbols
    • Scales used in building and their application on site.
    • Production drawings and interpretations (Plans, Elevations, sections and details).
    • Special details (Detailing building elements including doors and windows schedule).
    • Scaling (Enlargement, pictorial and perspectives).
    • Definitions and use of Auto-CADD.
  9. Excavation and earthwork
    • Classifications, types and properties of soil.
    • Definition and function of excavation.
    • Methods of excavations.
    • Tools, equipment and plant used for excavation.
    • Solution to excavation problems (Earthwork support, timbering battering and dewatering).
    • Safety rules during excavations.
  10. Foundation
    • Definition, purpose and functional requirement of the foundation.
    • Types of foundation.
    • Factors that determine the choice of foundation
  11. Ground Floors
    • Types, functions and functional requirements of the ground floor.
    • Methods of construction ground floor.
    • Definition of the basement.
    • Explain the differences between a building with a basement and one without a basement.
    • Problems relating basement in a building.
  12. Suspended floors
    • Definition and functions of the upper floor
    • Methods of construction of concrete floors and timber upper floors.
  13. Concrete
    • Definition and types of concrete.
    • Materials for concrete.
    • Definitions, types, components and manufacture of cement. Properties and uses of cement, including other alternatives to cement products, e.g., Pozzolana, Pulverize fuel Ash (P.F.A.), Rice husk ash (R.H.A), etc
    • Types and uses of aggregates (other aggregates such as palm kernel shell) and periwinkle, etc.
    • Types and uses of reinforcements.
    • Properties and characteristics of concrete
    • Process of concrete production.
    • Types of concrete tests
  14. Walls
    • Definition, types and functions of walls
    • Definition, types and properties of walling materials. (including locally sourced materials).
    • Manufacturing processes of walling materials (clay, brick, blocks and concrete blocks).
    • Sizes of blocks and bricks.
    • Mortar mixes for brick.
    • Methods of wall construction
    • Timber wall construction.
    • Definition and function of wall openings.
    • Methods of constructing wall opening.
    • Functions of lintels and arches.
  15. Doors and windows
    • Definition, functions and types of doors and windows.
    • Methods of mixing doors and window frames
  16. Staircases
    • Definition, classification, types and uses of stairs.
    • Materials used for the construction of stairs.
    • Materials used for finishing staircases.
  17. Plumbing installations and drainage system
    • Types of fitting in plumbing and sanitary works.
    • Materials for plumbing works and fittings.
    • Types of sanitary appliances.
    • Soil and waste appliances.
    • Installation of sanitary appliances.
    • Terms used in drainage works.
    • Principles and functional requirements of a drainage system.
    • Types of a drainage system.
    • Types of drainage materials (pipes and fittings).
    • Methods of laying and testing drain lines.
    • Description of septic and soakaway (inspection chamber, manhole, etc.).
  18. Electrical installation and solar energy system
    • Electrical symbols, installation terms and materials.
    • Identification and uses of electrical wiring materials.
    • Types of electrical wiring.
    • Definition, functions and components of solar energy systems.
  19. Roofs
    • Definition, purpose, and types of roofs.
    • Functional requirements of the roof.
    • Materials used for roofs.
    • Roof covering materials.
    • Protection of roof from wind, rain, lightning, etc.
  20. Finishes
    • Floors
      • Types and characteristics of floor finishes.
      • Methods of laying floor finishes.
      • Uses of floor finishes.
      • Care and maintenance of floor finishes
    • Walls
      • Types and characteristics of wall finishes
      • Plastering and rendering
      • Types of rendering
      • Methods of applying plastering and rendering mix.
    • Ceiling
      • Types and functions of ceiling finishes.
      • Ceiling finishing materials
    • External Work
      • Types of fence, materials for fencing and construction of a fence.
      • Types of gates, fixing of gates and production of gates.
      • Types and materials for construction of access roads.
      • Construction of access road.
      • Needs and materials for landscaping.
      • Procedures for landscaping.
  21. Types of Business Organization and Ways of Raising Capital
    • Principles and Management of Business Organization in the building industry.
    • Types of Business Organization in the Building Industry.
    • Types and sources of Capital.
  22. Book Keeping
    • Book Keeping in small-scale businesses.
    • Books of original entries
  23. Contract Work
    • Definition and types of contract.
    • Contract documents.
    • Parties to a contract


  1. Barry’s Introduction to Construction in Buildings
  2. Blocklaying and Concreting
  3. The Construction of Buildings VolsI– V
  4. Building Technology Ivor H. Seeley
  5. Building Construction S. C. O. A. Ezeji
  6. Brickwork Vols 1 – 3 Nash
  7. Building Construction Handbook R.  Chudley
  8. Building Construction Vols 1 – 4 W. B. Mckay
  9. Principles of Construction Roger Greeno
  10. Building Construction for Senior Secondary Schools Vols 1 – 3 (Ilesanmi) Adesokan and  M. O. Adeniyi
  11. Construction Technology Vols 1 – 4 R. Chuelley
  12. Advanced Building Construction Vols 1 & 2 C. M. H. Barritt

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