Civic Education

Civic Education WAEC Syllabus: Below is this year’s Waec Syllabus for Civic Education. Note that this syllabus is for both internal and external candidates.
View the Civic Education Waec Syllabus as text below or download the syllabus as a PDF below.
WAEC Syllabus


WAEC Syllabus for Civic Education aims at assessing the candidate’s ability to:
  1. understand the importance of citizenship in society;
  2. explain the structure, functions, and responsibilities of government to the people ;
  3. know emerging issues in society;
  4. understand the rights, duties, and obligations of citizens to government and society;
  5. appreciate democratic values and strive to uphold them.

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There will be two papers, Paper 1 and Paper 2, both of which will be in a composite paper and will be taken in one sitting.

Paper 1: This will be a 1-hour multiple-choice test consisting of fifty questions drawn from the entire syllabus and will carry 40 marks.

Paper 2: This paper will be a 2-hour essay-type test consisting of three sections: Sections A, B, and C. Each section shall contain three questions. Candidates will be required to answer four questions choosing at least one from each Section. The paper will carry 60 marks.

The sections shall cover the following areas of the syllabus:

  • Section A: National Ethics, Discipline, Rights, and Obligation
  • Section B: Emerging Issues in Society
  • Section C: Governmental System and Processes



1. Values

Values definition, types, and the importance of values to the society.

2. Citizenship and Nationalism

  • Meaning of citizenship;
  • Meaning of citizenship education;
  • Goals of citizenship education;
  • Duties and obligations of citizens;
  • Meaning of nationalism;
  • Ways of promoting national consciousness, integrity, and unity in society;
  • The nationalistic roles of individuals and groups;
  • Identification of local and world civic problems.

3. Human Rights

  • Meaning of human rights;
  • Categories of human rights;
  • Characteristics of human rights;
  • Meaning and historical background of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR);
  • Meaning and identification of the seven core freedoms of UDHR;
  • Importance of UDHR;
  • Roles of individuals, groups and government in UDHR;
  • Limitations to the exercise of human rights.

4. Law and Order

  • Definition of Law and Order;
  • Features of Law and Order;
  • Importance of Law and Order in Society;
  • Meaning of constituted authority;
  • Types of constituted authority;
  • Importance and roles of constituted authority.

5. Responsible Parenthood

  • Meaning of responsible parenthood;
  • Roles of responsible parents;
  • Importance of responsible parenthood in national development.

6. Traffic Regulations

  • Meaning of traffic regulations;
  • Traffic regulation and its importance in society;
  • The roles of the individual and government in maintaining traffic regulations.

7. Inter-Personal Relationships

  • Meaning of inter-personal relationships;
  • Types of interpersonal relationships;
  • Skills that promote interpersonal relationships;
  • Meaning of intercommunal relationships;
  • Importance of intercommunal relationships;
  • Meaning of inter-communal conflicts.
  • Skills for resolving inter-communal conflicts.


1. Cultism

  • Meaning and origin of cultism;
  • Different cult groups in Nigeria and their symbols;
  • Reasons for cultism;
  • Consequences of cultism;
  • Ways of preventing cultism in society.

2. Drugs and Drug Abuse

  • Meaning of drug abuse;
  • Drugs that can be abused;
  • How drugs are abused;
  • Symptoms of drug abuse;
  • Behaviours of drug addicts;
  • Ways of preventing drug abuse;
  • Government agencies working to prevent drug abuse/trafficking and their activities;
  • Laws against drug abuse.

3. Human Trafficking

  • Meaning of human trafficking;
  • Causes of human trafficking;
  • Effects and consequences of human trafficking;
  • Efforts of government and individuals in stopping human trafficking.

4. HIV/Aids

  • Meaning of HIV/AIDS;
  • Causes of HIV/AIDS;
  • Symptoms and effects of HIV/AIDS;
  • Prevention of HIV/AIDS;
  • Stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS.

5. Youth Empowerment

  • Meaning of youth empowerment;
  • Youth empowerment skills;
  • Importance and benefits of youth empowerment skills.
  • Efforts of government towards youth empowerment.


1. Structure and Functions of Government

  • Meaning of government;
  • Structure/tiers of government;
  • Functions of government.

2. Democracy, Rule of Law and National Development

  • Meaning, types, and features of democracy;
  • Importance of democracy;
  • Pillars of democracy;
  • Problems of democracy;
  • Meaning of rule of law;
  • Features of rule of law;
  • Importance of rule of law;
  • Problems of rule of law;
  • Meaning of national development;
  • How democracy and Rule of law promote national development- good governance,
  • Employment creation and poverty alleviation etc.

3. Political Apathy

  • Meaning of political apathy;
  • Causes of political apathy;
  • Consequences of political apathy;
  • Why leaders fail to protect the interests of their followers;
  • How leaders can protect the interests of their followers;
  • Ways of discouraging political apathy.

4. Civil Society and Popular Participation

  • Meaning of popular participation;
  • Types of popular participation;
  • The need for popular participation in society;
  • Traditional and modern modes of popular participation;
  • Achieving popular participation in politics;
  • Meaning of civil society;
  • Functions/need for civil society;
  • Qualities/characteristics of civil society, i.e. accountability, fairness, justice, equity etc.
  • Problems of civil society, i.e. bribery and corruption, inadequate funding, the overbearing influence of foreign donors etc.

5. Public Service in Democracy

  • Meaning of public service;
  • Functions of public service;
  • Problems of public service;
  • Reasons for the shortcomings in public service;
  • Ways of improving the public service.

That is the WAEC syllabus for Civic Education.

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