Edo Waec Syllabus

Below is this years Waec Syllabus for Edo. Note that this syllabus is for both internal and external candidates.

Aims and Objectives

  • enable candidates to speak, read and write competently in Edo to communicate effectively with other speakers of the language
  • familiarize candidates with the sound system, grammatical structures and other features of the Edo Language
  • acquaint candidates with the necessary tools needed for a thorough appreciation of Edo Speech Usage, Literature and Culture (customs and institutions)

Scheme of Examination

The examination will consist of two papers, Papers 1 and 2.  It will test all aspects of the Edo Language: comprehension, composition, sound system, grammar and translation. It will also test selected texts of oral and written literature as well as Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation, Customs and Institutions. The rubrics shall be written in Edo.


This will be 60 multiple-choice items covering Language, Literature and Culture aspects of the syllabus. Candidates will be required to answer all the questions in 1 hour for 60 marks.

The questions will be distributed as follows:

Section A: Language

Comprehension (2 short passages)                  –           10 items

Composition                                                    –             4 items

Sound System                                                 –             6 items

Grammar                                                         –             6 items

Translation                                                      –             4 items

  • 30 items

Section B: Literature

Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation       –           4 items

Oral Literature            –           Prose   –  3

–           Poetry  –  3       –           9 items

–           Drama –  3

Written Literature       –           Prose   –  3

–           Poetry  –  3       –           9 items

–           Drama –  3

22 items

Section C: Culture

Customs                                                          –           4 items

Institutions                                                      –           4 items

8 items

Total    =          (30 + 22 + 8)   =          60 items


The content for Paper 1 shall be the same as for Paper 2.

In Section B, all questions other than those on Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation will be on the set books for Paper


Essay-Type:     Language, Literature & Culture          Time:   2 hours

Candidates will be required to answer six questions in all: three questions from Section A; two questions from Section B; and one question from Section C. They will also be required to answer all the questions in Edo using the official Edo orthography and meta language. The paper shall carry 100 marks.

Detailed Edo Syllabus

Section A: Language

  1. Composition

    Candidates are advised to write 300 words and spend not more than 45 minutes on this section. The topic chosen will include any of the following essay types:

    • Narrative
    • Descriptive
    • Argumentative
    • Expository
    • Dialogue
    • Debate
    • Letter writing
  2. Sound System
    • Vowels, Consonants and Syllabic nasal
    • their production in terms of place and manner
    • their basic phonetic and phonemic classification
    • Syllable structure
    • Sound processes, e.g. vowel harmony assimilation, and elision
    • Sound system aspect of the orthography
    • Tones and tone notation
  3. Grammar
    • Word structure and word formation
    • Numerals: basic and derived
    • Word classes: nouns, verbs, adverbs, pronouns, adjectives, etc.
    • Grammatical categories: subject, object, complement, predicate, number, person, tense, aspect, mood, etc.
    • Phrases and clauses
    • The structure and type of sentences.

Section B: Literature

  1. Oral Literature – Prose, Poetry, Drama

    In Oral Literature, there will be three set books covering the different genres. One question will be set from each set book, making three questions in all. Candidates will be required to answer any one of the questions.

  2. Written Literature – Prose, Poetry, Drama

    In Written Literature, there will be 3 set books covering the different genres. One question will be set on each set book, making a total of three questions.  Candidates will be required to answer any one of the questions.

Section C: Culture

  1. Customs
    • make-up and adornments
    • in-door and out-door games
    • pregnancy and its care
    • names/naming ceremonies
    • home training: greetings, respect for superiors, cleanliness, tolerance, integrity, hard work, etc.
    • Edo foods
    • non-verbal communication
    • funerals: traditional and modern methods
    • inheritance: traditional and modern methods.
  2. Institutions
    • traditional occupations
    • marriage
    • politics: family structure, age grades, chieftaincy, Obaship, etc.
    • child care
    • ancestors
    • Edo beliefs about Osalobua/Osanobua (God), deities/divinities, other invisible forces, etc.
    • modern religions: Islam, Christianity, etc.
    • Economy: adverts, money lending, cooperative efforts, etc.


  1. Paper 1: 60 marks (30%)

    Paper 2: 100 marks (70%)

    160 marks (100%)

    Maximum Marks Obtainable: 160 marks (to be scaled down to 100%)

    NB:     To enhance the teaching of this language, it is recommended that schools provide audio-visual materials such as television sets, radios, tape recorders and tapes, cameras, charts and artifacts.


  1. Language
    • Egirama Edo Nogbae by Osayomwanbo Osemwegie-Ero
    • Edo grammar for Schools and Colleges by Osaren S,].B Omoregue
    • Edo Course Book 4-6 by Imasuen E.O (DR)
    • Edo Phonetics and Phonology by Omozuwa Victor Edosa
  2. Oral Literature


    • Okha Edo (7-22, 46-8-) by Emovon and Osemwegie


    • Eseikho by Ikponmwosa Osemwegie


    • Poems in Bini by kponmwosa Osemwegie
  3. Written Literature


    • Izelogha by Osayomwanbo Osemwegie-Ero


    • Asikoko Ekharha Oghe Edo by Obazee Gabriel et al


    • Ivin Eva by Osayomwanbo Osemwegie-Ero
  4. Culture
    • Edo Course Book 4-6 by Imasuen E.O (DR)
    • Edo Proverbs and Figures of Speech by Erhahon Ivie

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