Forestry Waec Syllabus

Below is this years Waec Syllabus for Forestry. Note that this syllabus is for both internal and external candidates.

Aims and Objectives

  • appreciation of the importance of forests to life
  • understanding of the causes and effects of forest degradation
  • understanding of the regulations governing the use of the forests and forest resources
  • knowledge of the functions of forestry sector institutions
  • basic skills in establishing and managing forest plantations
  • ability to contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of forests

Scheme of Examination

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:  Will consist of fifty multiple choice objective questions, all of which must be answered within 1 hour for 50 marks.

PAPER 2:  Will consist of six essay-type questions.  Candidates will be required to answer four questions within 2 hours for 20 marks each.

PAPER 3:  Will be a practical paper for school candidates or an alternative to a practical work test for private candidates  It will consist of four questions, all of which must be answered within 2 hours for 60 marks.


Schools offering Forestry are expected to keep demonstration plots where a variety of both indigenous and exotic forest trees are grown and maintained to develop their skills in the management of forest stands.

It is recommended that students of the subject should visit forest reserves, national parks, zoos and forest plantations, forestry institutions and industries for experiential learning as part of their course work.

It is also recommended that they will keep practical notebooks and specimen albums. These should contain records of activities based on laboratory, nursery and field observations to develop their documentation skills.

Detailed Forestry Syllabus


    • Basic concepts of forest and forestry
    • Introduction to Forest Ecology
      • Concept of forest Ecology
      • Forest Ecosystem
      • Ecosystem functions
    • Ecological Zones
      • Vegetation Zones
      • Factors Affecting Distribution of Vegetation
      • Forest Types
        • Comparison  of Forest Types
        • Land use Practices.
      • Major Forest Types in Relation to Latitudes
    • Introduction to Wildlife
      • Concept of Wildlife
      • Identification of

        Wildlife species

      • Importance of


      • Endangered, Rare and Common Wildlife Species
      • Wildlife Reserves
      • Wildlife Management practices
    • Plant parts and Tree


      • Plant Parts and Functions
      • Identification of Trees


    • Concept of Forest Estates
    • Management of Forest Estates
    • Current State of the Forest
    • Protective Measures
    • Protective Measures
      • Forms and Causes
      • Effects of deforestation
      • Control of Deforestation
    • Reforestation, Afforestation  and Reafforestion.
    • Natural Regeneration
      • Concept of natural regeneration
      • Factors influencing the choice of natural regeneration
      • Succession in natura regeneration
      • Intervention methods during natural regeneration
      • Other intervention measures
        • Agro-forestry
        • Taungya Practices
    • Artificial Regeneration
    • Invasive  Alien species


    • Plantation Development
      • Factors influencing plantation development
      • Plantation Planning and Design
    • Nursery Establishment
      • Cultural  Practices
      • Nursery Tools and Equipment
      • Nursery Pests and Diseases
      • Costing Nursery Establishment
    • Planting and Tending
      • Land Preparation
      • Seedling Planting
      • Tending Operations
      • Operational Costs
    • Forest Mensuration
      • Meaning, Importance  and Purpose
      • Measuring Instruments and Equipment
      • Enumeration of Growing Stock and Sampling Methods
      • Surveys


    • Harvesting of Timber
      • Factors to consider/Pre-harvesting activities
      • Procedures to follow
      • Log Markings
      • Harvesting, Extraction and Transportation Processes
      • Harvesting Equipment and Safety Measures
    • Harvesting of Non-Timber Forest  Products   (NTFPs)
    • Uses of Harvested Forest  Products
    • Uses of Harvested Forest  Products
    • Harvesting of wildlife
    • Harmful Wildlife Harvesting  Practices
    • Marketing of Forest Products
      • Classification of forest products
      • Contribution of forest products to national economy
      • Demand for forest products
        • Factors affecting demand for forest products
        • Types of forest products demanded by the local market and foreign market
        • Types of forest products demanded by the local market and foreign market
        • Socio-economic benefits and effects    of demand for the product
    • Marketing Agencies and their functions
    • Forest Industries
      • Timber Industries and Timber Products
      • Timber Industries and Timber Products
    • Establishing enterprises in forestry


    • Policy-making, Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation
    • Training and Research
    • Rights to Forest Resources
      • Types of Rights
      • Acquisition of  Rights
      • Acquisition of  Rights
    • Role of Stakeholders
    • Role of Stakeholders
      • Types of Land Tenure Systems
      • Role of Stools, Skins and Central Government in Land Ownership
      • Land Registration
      • Impact of Land Tenure on Land Use.


    • Cultivation of Mushroom
      • Cultivation of Mushroom
      • Cultivation of Mushroom
        • Classification of fungi
        • Poisonous and

          Non-poisonous mushroom/ Commercial and Non-commercial Mushroom

        • Commonly cultivated mushroom in West Africa
        • Nutrition of mushroom
        • Life cycle of  mushroom
        • Methods of mushroom cultivation
        • Production practices
        • Harvesting of mushroom
        • Post-harvest handling
    • Beekeeping
      • Importance of beekeeping
      • Apiary establishment
      • Members of honey bee colony and their roles
      • Management of an apiary-routine practices and precautions
      • Maturity of the colony, harvesting and processing.
      • Marketing of honey and other products


  1. Introduction to Wildlife and Plant Identification
  2. Tools, Equipment and Machinery
  3. Nursery practices
  4. Plantation Establishment: Land preparation
  5. Forest Mensuration
  6. Harvesting of Forest Resources
    • Methods of Harvesting Timber
    • Methods of Harvesting Non-timber Forest Products (Plants   and animals)
  7. Processing of Forest Resources
    • Timber
    • Non-Timber Forest Products
  8. Income Generating Ventures
    • Mushroom Cultivation
    • Beekeeping

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