Woodwork Waec Syllabus

Below is this years Waec Syllabus for Woodwork. Note that this syllabus is for both internal and external candidates.

Aims and Objectives

  • creative ability, mental and practical skills in the use of hand and machine tools for the construction of basic items in wood and related materials
  • good basic knowledge of design and reading of working drawings
  • ability to plan and follow a sequence of work operations which are necessary to lead to successful completion of projects
  • awareness of problems relating to wood and the wood industry
  • functional skills capable of providing a means of livelihood in woodworking

Scheme of Examination

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken.  Papers 1 and 2 will

be a composite paper to be taken in one sitting.


It will consist of forty multiple-choice objective questions, all of which must be answered within 40 minutes for 40 marks.


It will consist of a theory and design paper of two sections, Sections A and B, to be taken within 2 hours and 20 minutes.

Section A will be short structured questions put into three parts, Parts I, II and III, as follows:

  • Part I will be for candidates in Ghana only.
  • Part II will be for candidates in Nigeria, Sierra Leone and The Gambia.
  • Part III will be for all candidates. It will comprise two questions, out of which all candidates will be required to answer one.

Section B will comprise design and drawing questions, all of which must be answered within 1 hour and 40 minutes for 40 marks.


This will be a practical test lasting 3 hours.  Candidates will be required to make a test piece for which the appropriate drawings will be supplied.  It will carry 100 marks.


(1)        Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

(a)        terminologies used in woodwork;

(b)        materials used in woodwork;

(c)        care and maintenance of hand tools and machines;

(d)        safety precautions at the workshop;

(e)        principles of designing and drawing;

(f)        methods and principles of construction.

(2)        Candidates should be able to demonstrate the ability to:

(a)        follow a given design brief to produce working drawings;

(b)        interpret working drawings;

(c)        use tools, equipment and materials to carry out practical         operations in

sequential order;

(d)        prepare surfaces and apply appropriate finishes.

(3)        Candidates should be able to:

(a)        compare features of different items and make comments or judgments; contrast, justify, support or criticize a job;

(b)        write appraisal reports on artifacts.

Detailed Woodwork Syllabus


  1. The practical activities would require the use of
    • common hand tools;
    • portable power tools and basic woodworking machines;
    • different joints and shapes;
    • nails, screws and other means of fastening.
  2. Candidates will be required to work from dimensioned sketches, written descriptions or scaled drawings.  They are expected to be able to construct the following joints:
    • Widening joints – e.g. plain/simple butt, dowelled, tongue and grooved, rebated butt, loose tongue, slot screw.
    • Angle joints – for box-like construction, e.g. common and lapped dovetail, pin/comb/finger, dowel, housing, halving and plain miter.
    • Framing joints – e.g.  Mortice and tenon, bridle, miter, dowel and halving.
  3. Candidates will also be expected to be able to perform the following operations:
    • Shaping – e.g, chamfering, rounding, tapering, beveling, and playing;
    • Assembling and finishing – e.g, testing for squareness, parallelism, use of diagonals, trial assembly, cramping, preparation of surfaces, and application of finishes.



    Personal Safety

    • Types of safety measures and reasons for their observance.
    • Uses of safety equipment; first aid box and its use.
    • Safety to prevent injury to self and others in the workshop, wearing of protective clothing (e.g., goggles, aprons/overalls, masks, boots, helmets, gloves, respirators).

    Safety Relating to Hand Tools and Environment

    • Safety measures in relation to the machines and workshop
    • use of hand tools, machines, and electrical appliances;
    • state of workshop environment, e.g. lighting, ventilation, and exit doors.

    Safety devices

    Knowledge of types of safety devices and their uses, e.g. fire extinguishers, push sticks, push blocks, jigs, and fences.

    First Aid

    (a)  Knowledge of the contents of a First Aid box (i.e, lint, scissors, bandage, plaster, methylated spirit, iodine, cotton wool, forceps).

    (b)  Knowledge of the procedure for administration of first aid for cuts, burns, and electric shock.

  2. TOOLS

    Hand Tools

    Identification, classification, sketching, sharpening, maintenance, storage, safety and use of the following:-

    (a)  Measuring and marking-out tools: rules, calipers, gauges.

    (b)  Cutting and shaping tools:  saws, planes, chisels, spokeshaves.

    (c)  Abrading and scraping tools: files, scrapers.

    (d)  Boring tools – braces, bits, drills, gimlet, bradawl.

    (e)  Percussion and impelling tools:  hammers, screwdrivers, and mallet.

    (f)  Holding and supporting tools: cramps, cutting board, vices, pincers.

    Portable Power

    Identification, maintenance, safety and  tools uses of the following:-

    (a)    Planes – power hand planer, router planer.

    (b)  Saws – Jig saw, circular saw.

    (c)  Sanders – orbital sander, belt sander, drum sander, disc sander.

    (d)  Hand drill;

    (e)  Spray gun.

    Special Purpose

    Identification, classification, sketching

    Hand Tools maintenance, safety, and uses of the following:

    (a)  Planes: plow plane, compass plane, router plane.

    (b)   Saws:  coping saw, fret saw, bow saw, compass saw, pad saw, junior hacksaw.

    (c)  Boring bits:  expansion bit, Forstner bit, countersink bit, auger bit, center bit, gimlet, brawl, twist drill.

    (d)   Shapers:  scrapers, rasps, surform, files.


    Types of Machines

    Identification, functions of parts, use and safety precautions relating to the listed machines:

    (a)        Grinding wheel.

    (b)        Circular saw bench, cross-cut saw bandsaw, dimension saw.

    (c)        Surfacer or jointer, thicknesser.

    (d)        Chain, chisels, horizontal borer.

    (e)        Lathe, spindle moudler, drum sander, jig saw, router.

    (f)        Drilling machine.

    Safety Aids

    Uses of guards, jigs, fences, push sticks, push blocks, and gauges.


  1. Timber


    • Hardwoods and softwoods
    • Differences between hardwoods and structure.

    Parts of a Tree

    • Identification and functions of the parts of a growing tree, i.e, roots, trunk and crown.
    • Identification and functions of the cross-sectional parts of a tree, i.e bark, bast, cambium layer, annual/growth rings, medullary rays, sapwood, heartwood and pith.
    • Effects of the characteristics of the cross-sectional parts of a tree on timber for woodwork.

    Surface Quality of Timber

    Identification of Timber by the following characteristics:

    • grain (i.e straight, inter-lock, wavy, diagonal, etc.).
    • texture
    • figure
    • color


    Definition of the following properties:

    Properties: hardness, strength (i.e, tensile, compressive and shear), elasticity, and toughness.

    Conversion of   timber

    Description and sketching of the following methods of conversion:

    • plain/through and through/live sawing
    • tangential/back/flat/rake sawing
    • quarter/radial/rift sawing
    • boxed-heart sawing.

    Marketable size

    Identification and sketching of the following marketable sizes:

    Log, baulk, plank, strip, batten, square, scantling, flitch, board.


    Description of the following methods of seasoning:

    • natural or open-air seasoning
    • artificial or kiln seasoning
    • water seasoning
    • chemical seasoning.

    Determination of  moisture

    Description of the following methods content of determining moisture content:

    • oven dry method;
    • moisture meter method.

    Wood Preservation

    • Reasons for preserving timber
    • Types of preservatives – tar oil, waterborne, organic solvent
    • Qualities of an ideal preservative
    • Method of application:
      • Pressure treatment (i.e., full cell and empty cell)
      • Non-pressure treatment (i.e. spraying, impregnation, brushing, dipping, hot and cold treatment, steeping).

    Defects in Timber

    Identification, causes and Sketching of the following types of defects in timber:

    • natural defects, e.g. knots, burr, grains
    • defects caused by organisms, e.g rots, bores
    • wood processing defect, e.g. diagonal grain, upset, compression shakes
    • seasoning defects, e.g, splits, warp, shakes, honeycombing, case hardening.

    West African Timber

    Characteristics, similarities and differences in use and working qualities of the following West African timbers:

    • Iroko (Odum), Abura, Mahogany, Obeche (Wawa), Walnut, Afara, Ebony, Danta, Emery, Shedua, Mansonia, Afromosia (Kokoda), Avodire, Kusia
    • Effects of depletion of timber species


    Identification, description and sketching of the following:

    • Methods of production, i.e, rotary, slicing, sawing.
    • Types of veneers, i.e, face, core and back veneers.

    Manufactured boards

    Identification, description, uses and sketching of Plywood, blockboard, laminboard, chipboard, particleboard, battenboard, hardboard, and fiberboard.

  2. Surface Decoration
    • Identification and Sketching of Tools:
    • Identification and description of the following methods of surface decoration: inlaying, veneering (hammer and caul, marquetry, laminated plastics, edging (i.e, solid wood, plastics, metals, veneer), moldings (i.e, round, ovolo, reeding, cavetto/hollow, cyma recta/ogee, cyma reversa, scotia, bead, fluting), incised and relief carving.
  3. Non-Wood Material


    • Classification: ferrous and non-ferrous
    • Types of ferrous metals: low carbon steel, dead/mild steel
    • Types of non-ferrous metals: Aluminum, lead, copper, tin.
    • Physical Properties of metals: hardness/softness.
    • Basic chemical characteristics of different metals.


    Identification, description, uses and sketching of French or wire nails;  oval wire nails; lost-head nails; panel pin; veneer pin; cut tack; upholstery nails; roofing nails.


    Identification, description, uses and sketching of Countersunk head; raised head; round head; Philip’s head; coach screws.


    • Types – thermosetting and thermoplastics
    • Differences between the types and their common properties
    • Items made from the two types of plastics
    • Uses of plastics.


    Identification and uses of: opaque, transparent and decorative glasses.


    • Types – Natural and artificial.
    • Differences between the types.
    • Uses of leather, e.g, furniture, belts, and bags.


    Identification, uses and description of the process of manufacture of glass paper and garnet paper.


    Identification, description, uses and sketching of locks; hinges; bolts; catches; castors; stays.


    Identification, characteristics, preparation and application, use, safety precaution during application of:

    • Protein:  animal, casein.
    • Synthetic: urea, phenol, melamine formaldehyde
    • Contact: rubber-based (Evostick).


  1. Description of process, tools and materials required for various surface preparation: planning,  scraping, sanding,  filling, staining, bleaching, spraying and polishing.

    Description of process, tools and materials required for various surface preparation: planning,  scraping, sanding,  filling, staining, bleaching, spraying and polishing.


    Types, characteristics, uses, methods of application, and safety precautions in the use of the following:-

    • Paint vanishes, lacquers, polishes, laminated plastics.

    Types and description of methods:

    • Obtaining sawn shapes from solid wood
    • Shaping by lamination.
    • Shaping by curved bending.

    Classification, uses and sketching of  the following:-

    • angle joints – mortice and tenon,  dowel, dovetails, housing, halving, comb, plain miter
    • widening joints – dowel, tongue and groove, loose tongue, rebated butt, slot screw, plain butt
    • Framing joints:- mortice and tenon, bridle, miter, dowelled, halving.


    Identification uses and sketching of the following:-

    • tack hammer, strainer, curved and straight needle, tack remover,  stapler, sewing machine, webbing stretcher, ripping chisel.


    Types, differences and uses of the following:-

    • Webbing – twine or cord, thread, string, jute, hessian or baft.
    • Padding – foam, kapok, feathers, coconut fibers.
    • Covering – fabric, natural and artificial leathers.
    • Tacking – stud, tack nails.

    Upholstery parts –

    • frame, platform, studding/padding, covering.
    • Types of platforms (fixed and loose) and their uses.

    Factors Affecting Design –

    • Fitness for purpose, proportion, material, construction, finishing, cost

    Problem identification and writing of brief.

    • Stating conditions and constraints relating to the suggested solution
    • Writing of specifications (i.e, function, materials, construction, cost, ergonomics, aesthetics) for possible solutions.

    Generating solutions:

    • Sources of information to generate ideas in solving problems, e.g. research, interviews, observations.
    • Preliminary sketches – freehand sketching of designs.

    Preparation of Solution:

    • drawing in isometric view;
    • preparation of working drawing in first and third-angle orthographic projection
    • preparation of the cutting list.

    Estimation of the cost of materials

    Making of the artifact

    • Preparation of the materials
    • Construction of the artifact:

    Working drawings should be related to the artifact constructed;

    • Tools are correctly used
    • Appropriate joints are used
    • Sequence of operation is followed
    • Safety precautions are observed
    • Appropriate finishes are  applied

    Evaluating the artifact: – the steps are:

    • purpose of the artifact
    • specifications of artifact
    • whether the artifact serves the specifications
    • strengths and weaknesses of artifact
    • areas of possible improvement
    • judgment as to whether an artifact is excellent, good, satisfactory, or poor.
    • Estimation, calculations involving linear, area, volume, and percentage
    • Calculation of unit and total cost of a job
    • Explanation of the various elements involved in the costing of a job, i.e. materials, labor, overhead expenses, packaging, portage, sales expenses, advertising, net profit, and tax.
    • The lathe – identification and function of parts and accessories: bed, stands, headstock, tailstock, tool rest, centers, and face plates.
    • Woodturning tools: identification uses and sketching of the following:
      • scraping tools.
      • cutting tools.
    • Types of turning operations:
      • faceplate turning, between centers turning, boring.
      • Articles produced from turning operations: flower vase, cup, egg holder, bowl, candle holder, decorative moldings, Police baton, rolling pin, table legs.

    Explanation of stages in mass production:

    • Preparation of Design and Working drawings.
    • Preparation of workshop rod/ setting out.
    • Making of the prototype.
    • Preparation of cutting list.
    • Preparation of materials.
    • Marking out using a template.
    • Production of parts – use of jigs; division of labor.
    • Trial run.
    • Assembly line – trial assembly and final assembly.
    • Application of finishing.
    • Quality control.


  1. TOOLS

    (1)        Rip saw

    (2)        Cross-cut saw

    (3)        Panel saw

    (4)        Tenon saw

    (5)        Dovetail saw

    (6)        Coping saw

    (7)        Pad saw

    (8)        Firmer chisels, 6mm, 10mm, 12mm, 15mm, 20mm

    (9)        Bevelled-edge chisels 6mm, 10mm, 12mm, 15mm, 20mm

    (10)      Mortise chisels, 6mm, 100mm, 12mm, 15mm and 20mm

    (11)      Gouges (Firmer and Scribing) 6mm, 12mm, 15mm, 20mm

    (12)      Jack plane (metal)

    (13)      Smoothing plane (metal)

    (14)      Plough plane

    (15)      Rebate plane

    (16)      Shoulder plane

    (17)      Block plane

    (18)      Router plane

    (19)      Bullnose plane

    (20)      Compass plane

    (21)      Spokes have (Round and flat)

    (22)      Oil stone and slip stones

    (23)      Oil can

    (24)      Brace (Ratchet)

    (25)      Bits (auger, centre, Forstner, gimlet, bradawl, countersink sizes 6mm, 10mm,12mm, 20mm

    (26)      Hand drill

    (27)      Hand scraper

    (28)      Folding rule/Tape measure

    (29)      Marking gauge

    (30)      Cutting gauge

    (31)      Mortise gauge

    (32)      Wing compasses

    (33)      Marking knife

    (34)      Sliding bevel

    (35)      Mitre square

    (36)      Woodwork bench

    (37)      Woodwork bench vice

    (38)      Sash cramps

    (39)      G-cramps.

    (40)      Rack cramps

    (41)      Try square

    (42)      Warrington hammer

    (43)      Claw hammer

    (44)      Mallet

    (45)      Pincers

    (46)      Nail punches

    (47)      Crowbar

    (48)      Nail cutter

    (49)      Glass cutter

    (50)      Files

    (51)      Rasps

    • Cross-cut saw
    • Circular saw bench
    • Dimension saw
    • Band saw
    • Plane
    • Router
    • Jigsaw
    • Circular saw
    • Power drill
    • Sanders (orbital, belt, disc)
    • Timber
    • Adhesive
    • Abrasives
    • Nails
    • Screws
    • Finishes and Thinners
    • Plywood (different sizes)
    • Permanent Markers

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