Yoruba Waec Syllabus

Below is this years Waec Syllabus for Yoruba. Note that this syllabus is for both internal and external candidates.

Aims and Objectives

  • Enable candidates to speak, read and write competently in Yoruba and communicate effectively with other speakers of the language
  • Familiarize candidates with the sound system, grammatical structures and other features of the Yoruba Language
  • Acquaint candidates with the necessary tools needed for a thorough appreciation of Yoruba speech usage, literature and culture (customs and institutions)

Scheme of Examination

The examination will consist of two papers, Papers 1 and 2. It will test the following aspects of the Yoruba Language: comprehension, composition, sound system, grammar and translation.

It will also test selected texts of oral and written literature as well as Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation, Customs and Institutions. The rubrics shall be written in Yoruba.


Shall contain 60 multiple-choice objective questions on Language, Literature and Culture. The paper shall have three sections, Sections A, B and C.

Candidates will be required to answer all the questions in 1 hour for 60 marks. The questions shall be distributed as follows:


Comprehension (2 short passages): 10 items

Composition: 4 items

Sound System: 6 items

Grammar: 6 items

Translation: 4 items

  • 30 items


Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation: 4 items

Oral Literature

  • Prose   –  3
  • Poetry  –  3
  • Drama – 3

Written Literature

  • –           Prose   –  3
  • –           Poetry  –  3
  • –           Drama –  3

Total of 22 items

Section C: CULTURE

Customs: 4 items

Institutions: 4 items

8 items

Total    =          (30 + 22 + 8)   =          60 items


The content for Paper 1 shall be the same as for Paper 2

In Section B, all questions other than those on Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation will be on the set books for Paper 2


Paper 2 shall be essay-type questions on language, literature and culture. It will also have three sections, Sections A, B and C, which have a 2-hour duration and carry 100 marks.

Candidates will be required to answer six questions in all: three questions from Section A; two questions from Section B, and one question from Section C. They will also be required to answer all the questions in Yoruba using the official Yoruba orthography and meta language.

Detailed Yoruba Syllabus


  1. Composition
    • Narrative
    • Descriptive
    • Argumentative
    • Expository
    • Dialogue
    • Debate
    • Letter writing

  2. Sound System
    • Vowels, Consonants and Syllabic nasal
    • their production in terms of place and manner
    • their basic phonetic and phonemic classification
    • Syllable structure
    • Sound processes, e.g. vowel harmony assimilation, elision
    • Sound system aspect of the orthography
    • Tones and tone notation

  3. Grammar
    • Word structure and word formation
    • Numerals: basic and derived
    • Word classes: nouns, verbs, adverbs, pronouns, adjectives, etc
    • Grammatical categories: subject, object, complement, predicate, number, person, tense, aspect, mood, etc
    • Phrases and clauses
    • The structure and type of sentences.

SECTION B: Literature

  1. Oral Literature – Prose, Poetry, Drama

    In Oral Literature, there will be 3 set books covering the different genres. 1 question will be set from each set book, and candidates will be required to answer any 1 of the 3 questions.

  2. Written Literature – Prose, Poetry, Drama

    In Written Literature, there will be three set books covering the different genres. One question will be set from each set book, and candidates will be required to answer any one of the three questions.

SECTION C: Culture

  1. Customs
    • Make-up and adornments
    • In-door and out-door games
    • Pregnancy and its care
    • Naming
    • Home training: greetings, respect for superiors, cleanliness, tolerance, integrity, hard work, etc.
    • Yoruba foods
    • Non-verbal communication
    • Funerals: traditional and modern methods
    • Inheritance: traditional and modern methods.

  2. Institutions
    • Traditional occupations
    • Marriage
    • Politics: family structure, age, grades, chieftaincy, Obaship, etc.
    • Child care
    • Ancestors
    • Yoruba beliefs about Olodumare (God), deities/divinities, other invisible forces, etc.
    • Modern religions: Islam, Christianity, etc.
    • Economy: adverts, money lending, cooperative efforts, etc.


    • Abiodun, Jibola: (1996) Aroko Ati Aayan, Ogbufo. Majab (Ilorin)
    • Owolabi, K: (1989) Ijinle Itupale Ede Yoruba Extension Publications (Ibadan)
    • Bamgbose, A: (1991) Fonoloji Ati Girama Yoruba. University Press (Ibadan)
    • Adewole, L.O: (2005) A bilingualised Dictionary of Yoruba Monosyllabic Words. Montem paperbacks, Akure

    • PROSE
      • Adebayo Babalola (2005): Akojopo Alo Ijapa Apa Kinni. University Press PLC, Ibadan.
    • POETRY
      • Adebayo Babalola (2000): Awon Oriki Orile Metadinlogbon: pp. i-x and 117-314. Longman Nigeria PLC, Lagos
    • DRAMA
      • S.M Raji (2018): Ege Dida. Extension Publications Limited

    • DRAMA
      • Akinwunmi Isola (2014): Nitori Owo.
    • PROSE
      • Debo Awe (2016): Moremi Ajasoro
    • POETRY
      • Ayomide Akanji: Oro Enu Akewi

    • Adeoye, C.L.: (1979) Asa Ati Ise Yoruba University Press (Ibadan)
    • Olajubu, O. (1978) Iwe Asa Ibile Yoruba Longman (Lagos)
    • Daramola, A. ati Jeje. Asa Ati Orisa Onibon-Oje (Ibadan)


    • Bamgbose (ed): (1983) Iwe Ede Iperi Yoruba Vol. 1 YSAN/NERDC
    • Awobuluyi (ed): (1990) Iwe Ede Iperi Yoruba Vo. ll UPL/NERDC
    • Egbe Akomolede ati Asa Eko Ede Yoruba Ode Oni SSI – III Macmillan Yoruba, Naijiria: (1988)
    • Ajayi W.B.: (1989) Egberun Ibeere Ewonidahun Hienemann
    • Mustapha D-et al: (1983) Osupa Ede Yoruba I-III Nelson
    • “ “ (1987) Iwe Eko Ede Yoruba Titun I-III UPL
    • Owolabi, O. et al: (1984) Ijinle Ede ati Litireso Yoruba Evans
    • Babalola, A. et al: (1988) Iwe Imodotun Yoruba I-III Longman
    • Awoyale, Y. et al: (1984) Eko Ede Yoruba Ode Oni JSI-III Macmillan
    • Egbe Akomolede ati Yoruba Gbode Macmillan
    • AsaYoruba, Naijiria: (1986)
    • Odujinrin, J.S.A.: Modern Lesson in Yoruba Part I-III Odujinrin Publishers
    • Awobuluyi, O. (1978) Essentials of Yoruba Grammar UPL
    • Bamgbose, A. (1967) A short Yoruba Grammar Heinemann
    • Akinlade, Kola: (1987) Owe Pelu Itumo Longman
    • Fabunmi, M.A.(1969) Yoruba Idioms. AUP
    • Delano, I.O. Owe Lesin Oro UPL
    • Koseemanii, Supo: (1987) Owe ati Asayan Oro Yoruba Vantage
    • Olopade, A: (1991) Asayan Akanlo – Ede Yoruba Gbemi Sodipo Press
    • Adewoyin, S.Y. (2006) Imo Ede, Asa ati Corpomutt Publishers
    • Litireso Yoruba 1-III

    • Alaba and Ogunsipe: (1982) Iwe Afinimona Lori Awon Nelson
    • Iwe Fagunwa
    • Ogunsina, Bisi: (1981) Iwe Akoyawo Alaye lori O le ku UPL
    • Egbe Akomolede ati Asa Ewi Yoruba Lakotun 1-III Evans
    • Yoruba, Naijiria: (2007)

    • Ladele, T.A.A. et al (1986) Akojopo Ijinle Asa Yoruba Macmillan
    • Adeoye, C.L.: (1985) Igbagbo ati Esin Yoruba Evans
    • Opadotun, O.: (1966) Aroko Vantage
    • Adeniji, A.A.: (1987) Ogun ni ile Yoruba Longman
    • Adeoye, C.L.: (1982) Oruko Yoruba UPL.

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