Animal Husbandry (ALT A) Waec Syllabus

Below is this years Waec Syllabus for Animal Husbandry (ALT A). Note that this syllabus is for both internal and external candidates.

Aims and Objectives

  • basic animal production practices such as feeding, housing, pest and disease control
  • the efficient and effective management of animal enterprises
  • the application of environmentally friendly practices to sustain production
  • the identification of basic problems hindering the improvement of the Animal Industry
  • the efficient processing, preservation, packaging, storage and marketing of animals and their products

Scheme of Examination

For candidates in Ghana only

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.


Will consist of fifty multiple choice objective questions all of which must be
answered within 1 hour for 50 marks.


Will consist of six essay-type questions. Candidates will be required to
answer four questions within 2 hours for 80 marks.


Will be a practical paper for school candidates or a test of practical paper for
private candidates. The paper will consist of four questions, all of which must
be answered within 2 hours for 60 marks.


1. Schools offering Animal Husbandry are expected to raise at least one species of farm animal from each of the following groups:

(a) Monogastrics, e.g., poultry, pigs, rabbits.

(b) Ruminants e.g. goats, sheep, cattle.

(b) Non-traditional farm animals e.g. grasscutters, snails

2. It is recommended that the schools should have agriculture laboratories where specimens, equipment and chemicals would be kept.

3. It is also recommended that candidates keep practical notebooks which should contain records of activities undertaken and observations made on the school farm and on field trips and of specimens collected.

Detailed Animal Husbandry (ALT A) Syllabus


  1. Meaning, scope and importance of animal husbandry
  2. Problems in animal production
  3. Quality and Safety standards of animal food products
  4. Classification of farm animals


  1. Meaning of the terms
    • anatomy, physiology and the external orientation of farm animals
  2. Digestive System
    • Comparative anatomy of digestive system of farm animals
    • Digestion and Absorption processes in the various classes of farm animals
  3. Central Nervous System
    • Parts of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
    • Functions of the ANS
    • Endocrine System
      • Endocrine glands and their functions
      • Hormones and their functions
  4. Integumentary, skeletal and muscular systems
  5. Reproductive System
    • Anatomy of the reproductive system of poultry and livestock
    • Functions of organs and parts of the reproductive system
    • Reproductive processes
  6. Circulatory System
    • Structure and functions
    • Heart and Pulse rate
  7. Respiratory System
    • Meaning and Importance of Respiration
    • Structure and Functions of the Respiratory System
  8. Excretory System
    • Meaning and Importance of the Excretion
    • Structure and Functions of the Excretory System
    • Excretory Products


  1. Introduction to Animal Nutrition
    • Meaning and Importance
    • Modes of feeding
  2. Feedstuffs and Feed Supplements
    • Types, composition and functions of the feed nutrients
    • Classification of feedstuffs
    • Food tests
    • Producers and suppliers of feedstuffs and supplements
  3. Formulation and Preparation of Animal Feeds
    • Common terms used in feed formulation
    • Factors considered in the formulation of ration
    • Steps in the formulation of ration
  4. Handling and Storage of Animal Feeds
    • Importance of feed storage and features of storage structures
    • Factors that affect the quality of stored feed
  5. Record keeping and estimation of the cost of prepared feed
  6. Pests of stored feed and their control


  1. Meaning of terms
  2. Signs of good and ill- health
  3. Factors that pre- dispose animals to diseases
  4. Effects of diseases, pests and parasites on animal production
  5. Zoonotic diseases
    • their importance and prevention
  6. athogens of farm animal diseases
    • Classification of pathogens
    • Pathogenic diseases and their economic importance
    • Principles for prevention and
      control of diseases of farm animals
    • Management practices in the prevention and control of diseases of farm animals
  7. Ectoparasites and endoparasites
    • Types and examples
      of parasites
    • Structure, life cycle and mode of feeding
    • Conditions that influence parasite population
  8. Prevention and control of parasites
  9. Economic Importance of parasites


  1. Heredity, basic genetic terms and Mendel’s first law of inheritance
  2. Meaning, objectives and benefits of animal improvement
  3. Performance traits of improved and unimproved animals
  4. Methods of animal improvement; advantages and disadvantages
  5. Nutritional and environmental factors affecting animal improvement
  6. Artificial Insemination
    • Meaning andvprocess of
    • Advantages ofvA.I.
    • Signs of heatv(oestrus) and
      handling procedures in the
      collection and storage of semen


  1. Internal and external environment of animals
  2. The role of the nervous and endocrine systems in homeostasis and animal’s response to stimuli
  3. Determination of room temperature, body temperature and respiration rate in farm animals
  4. Effects of climate on farm animals
  5. Modification of animal environment and management pratices to reduce stress on animals


  1. Poultry production
    • Definition and characteristics of
    • Classes of poultry
    • Breeds and types of poultry
    • Importance/role of poultry production
    • Systems of poultry Production
    • Incubation and Hatchery Practices
      • Terminologies
      • Natural and Artificial Incubation
      • Selection of eggs for Hatching
      • Conditions necessary for
        hatching of eggs
      • Incubation Process
      • Candling of Eggs
      • Marketing of the day-
        old chicks
    • Management Practices
    • Processing and marketing of Poultry
    • Prospects of producing the various types of poultry
  2. Pig Production
    • Types, breeds and characteristics
    • Importance of pig production
    • Systems of keeping pigs
    • Management practices
    • Slaughtering, processing and marketing of pigs
  3. Domestic Pets
    • Meaning and Importance of pets
    • Management of pets
    • Training of Pets
    • Marketing of pets


  1. Sheep and goat production.
    • Common Breeds, Distribution and Characteristics
    • Importance of sheep and goats
    • Management Practices
    • Common parasites and diseases and their control
    • Processing and marketing
  2. Beef Cattle Production
    • Breeds and characteristics
    • Importance of beef cattle
    • Common Production Systems
    • Planning, production and management of cattle for beef and traction
    • General management
    • Processing and marketing
    • Major Problems in beef cattle production
  3. Dairy cattle production
    • Breeds and features of dairy cow
    • Characteristics, sources and importance of milk
    • Management practices
    • Diseases and their
    • Production, processing and marketing of milk and dairy products
    • Problems of dairy cattle production in warm climates


  1. Introduction to range and pastures
    • Basic terminologies in
      pasture and range management
    • Types of pasture and their features
    • Importance of pastures and forage crops in animal production
    • Factors that affect the productivity of different types of pasture
    • Major forage crops
    • Poisonous plants in pasture
  2. Pasture establishment and management
    • Qualities of good pasture and forage species
    • Establishment of pasture
    • Improving natural Pastures
    • Management of cultivated pastures
    • Harvesting of forage crops
  3. Forage conservation and utilization
    • Forage conservation and
      its importance
    • Preparation of hay and silage
    • Utilization of crop residue in feeding animals


  1. Rabbit and Grasscutter Production
    • Common breeds
    • Importance of producing rabbits
      and grasscutters
    • Manangement Practices
    • Processing and Marketing
  2. Snail Farming
    • Meaning and importance
    • External features of Snails
    • Types of species
    • Site selection
    • Management Practices
    • Processing and marketing of snails
    • Establishing enterprises in animal husbandry
  3. Breeds of Farm Animals
  4. Classification of farm Animals
  5. Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals
  6. Animal Nutrition
  7. Animal Nutrition
  8. Diseases of farm animals; their prevention and control
  9. Artificial Insemination
  10. Environmental Physiology
  11. Management Practices
  12. Animal Products and By-products
  13. Range and Pasture Management
  14. Animal Housing and Structures

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