Below is this year’s WAEC syllabus for  Ibibio . Note that this syllabus is for both Internal and external candidates.

waec syllabus


This syllabus has been drawn from the Ibibio curriculum for Senior High Schools developed by Nigeria Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).


The syllabus on the Ibibio language is designed to

  • enable candidates to speak, read and write competently in Ibibio and communicate effectively within their environment.
  • expose the candidates to their culture, customs and institutions.
  • acquaint them with the necessary tools needed for creative writing and the appreciation of Ibibio language and literature.
  • familiarize candidates with the sound system, grammatical structures and other features of the Ibibio language.


The examination shall consist of two papers, Papers 1 and 2, both of which shall constitute a composite paper and shall be taken in one sitting. The rubrics of the papers shall be written in Ibibio. Candidates will be required to answer all the questions in Ibibio using the standard orthography metalanguage.


Paper 1 will consist of sixty multiple-choice objective questions, all of which should be answered within 1 hour for 60 marks. The paper will have three sections, Sections A, B and C. The questions in the sections will cover the following aspects of the subject:

  • Section A:       Language
  • Section B:       Literature
  • Section C:       Culture

Section A: Language

This will contain thirty multiple-choice questions on language distributed as follows:

  • Comprehension (2 short passages)         –                    10 items
  • Composition/letter writing                     –                   4 items
  • Sound system                                          –                   6 items
  • Grammar                                                 –                   6 items
  • Translation                                              –                   4 items
                    • 30 items

Section B:   Literature

Will contain twenty-two multiple choice questions on literature distributed as follows:

  • Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation –                 4 items
  • Oral Literature –             Prose          –      3 items  Poetry         –        3 items Drama        –                3 items
  • Written Literature       – Prose          –     3 items   Poetry        –        3 itemsDrama       –                 3 items
          •                                                                         Total –      22 items

In this section, all questions other than those on Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation will be based on the set books for Paper 2.

Section C: Culture

This will contain eight multiple-choice questions on culture distributed as follows:

  • Customs          –                      4 items
  • Institutions      –                      4 items
            • 8 items

TOTAL: (30+22+8) = 60 items


Paper 2 will be a composition test and will also have three sections, Sections A, B and C.

This paper will consist of three sections as follows:

  • Section A:       Language
  • Section B:       Literature
  • Section C:       Culture

Candidates will be required to answer six out of the total of thirteen questions to be made available. The paper will take 2 hours to complete and carry 100 marks.

Further details on the requirements and structure of the paper are given below.

Section A: Essay

This section will consist of the following:

  • Part 1 – Essay/Letter writing
  • Part 2 – Sound system
  • Part 3 – Grammar

Part 1: Essay/Letter writing

Candidates are advised not to spend more than 45 minutes on this section. There will be 5 topics from the following essay types, and candidates will be expected to attempt only one topic in about 300 words.

  • Narrative;
  • Descriptive;
  • Argumentative;
  • Expository;
  • Dialogue;
  • Proverbial;
  • Letter writing.

Part 2: Sound system

Two questions will be set for candidates to attempt one. Questions will be set on these areas testing the candidate’s basic knowledge of

  • Vowels, Consonants, the Syllabic Nasal:
  • their production in terms of place and manner of articulation
  • their basic phonetic and phonemic classification
  • Syllable Structure – the way consonants and vowels combine in the syllabus
  • Sound Processes: vowel harmony
  • Assimilation of loan words

(e) Tone and tone intonation

  • – high tone
  • – low tone
  • – falling tone
  • – rising tone

Part 3: Grammar

Candidates will be required to answer one question from the two questions set.

  1. Word structure and word formation: root, affixes, suffixes, prefixes, compounding, borrowing, reduplication.
  2. Word classes: Noun, verb, adverb, pronoun, adjectives, conjunction, preposition.
  • Grammatical categories: number, person, tense, negation.
  1. Phrases and Clauses: their structure and functions.
  2. Sentences: The structure -complex, compound and simple

Types of sentences in terms of function: interrogative, declarative and negative.

  1. Punctuation marks.

Section B: Literature

This section will consist of two parts, Part I (Oral Literature) and Part II (Written Literature). Six questions will be set, out of which candidates will be required to answer two, i.e. one on Oral Literature and the other on Written Literature. There will be six set books, three on Oral Literature and three on Written Literature.

Part 1: Oral Literature

  • Prose ( Folktales, legends, proverbs, riddles)
  • Poetry (Songs, ballads)
  • Drama (Traditional drama)

In Oral Literature, there will be three (3) set books covering different genres. One question will be set on each set book, and candidates will be required to answer any one of the three questions.

Part 2: Written Literature

  • Prose
  • Poetry
  • Drama

In Written Literature, too, there will be three set books covering the different genres. One question will be set on each set book, and candidates will be required to answer any one out of the three questions.

Section C:   Culture             

This section will consist of topics on customs and institutions. Two questions will be set and candidates will be required to answer one.

Topics to be examined include:

  • Mme ubqk utom – Traditional occupation
  • Ukq iyak
  • Utq i]wan
  • Unyam urua
  • Udom ut[m
  • Uk[m ]kinya
  • Utuak ekpad
  • Udqk aya
  • Utop ufqk
  • Ufiaka ikpq
  • Usio id[d
  • Udqk ikad
  • Udqk ]kikan
  • Ukq] ubom

(ii)        Ubon/ekpÃk – Family Structure

  • UsÃ] ukpono/S’ekpono – Religious Institution
  • Abasi
  • Ndem
  • Ibqk
  • Ndukpo
  • Ndidia/utem ndidia nte – Traditional (Ibibio) Food
  • Kadi
  • Fufu
  • Efere
  • Ikpo – Funerals
  • Mme usqrq/Mbre Ibibio – Traditional Festivals
  • Usqrq Nsuuk Udia
  • Usqrq idqk
  • Usqrq Mmana mmq
  • Usqrq uman
  • Usqrq Usio mboppo
  • Usqrq Eka Abasi
  • UsqrqUyad Ntinya
  • Ibed – Taboos
  • Uduq obom
  • Ibed ndq
  • Ukaa]a Ada]a esed
  • Afai
  • Inq
  • Ef[be/use
  • Ekpo }ka-owo
  • Uduwe mbed
  • Edu uwem (ukpeep) –Traditional education
  • Uyad ntinya – Coronation
  • Mboppo – Maiden fattening
  • NdutÃm IdÃ] – Traditional rites
  • Mme ]ka Ibibio – Traditional societies
  • UsÃ] da]a Ibibio ek[t unadot – Ibibio world view
  • Eny[] ke Ibibio – Naming in Ibibio



Prose – Enoidem by Elerius Edet John

Drama – Mfqn by Sunny Sampson Akpan

poetry – Akpasa Uto by (ED.) Enefiok Andy


Prose – Kufre Ufok]wed Mfqn by Okonko Akpan, itoro Itue

Drama – Uwa by Enefiok Andy

Poetry – Ewa Inq by Rew. Dr. Usen Albert Sampson


  1. Edu Uwem Ke Ibibio by Elerius John Etal
  2. Yak Kpeeb Ibibio SS3 by Eno-Abasi E. Urua (etal)
  3. An Enquiry into Culture, Ibibio Names by Edet A. Ukpong
  4. Sociology of Ibibio: A Study of Social organization and Change by Ekong Ekong


  1. Ikq Ibibio: Uyai Mme Ufqn by Edem James Etok
  2. }wed Usem Ibibio (Ibibio Dictionary) by Eno-Abasi Urua etal
  3. Ibibio Dictionary by Elaine Marlowe Kaufman
  4. Ibibio Phonetics and Phonology by Eno-Abasi E. Urua
  5. A Grammar of the Ibibio Language by Okon Essien


Who are the Ibibio? By Edet A. Udo



You may want to check out awajis.com/category/waec for more information.



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