Below is this year’s WAEC syllabus for  Tourism. Note that this syllabus is for both Internal and external candidates.

WAEC Syllabus


The syllabus is designed to evaluate the candidates’ knowledge and skills in the potential available in the tourism industry.

The syllabus is based on the assumption that not less than three teaching periods or 2 hours per week will be allocated to the subject during the senior secondary school course.


The examination will test candidates’ ability to:

  • explain the concepts associated with tourism activities such as tourism, tourist, tourist attraction, tour operation, excursion, travel agency etc;
  • acquire knowledge of tourist attraction centers and their locations;
  • understand the financial, social, and developmental benefits of tourism to a nation;
  • explain the tourism and cultural festivals of a nation;
  • acquire the basic knowledge of the operations of a travel agency and tour businesses;
  • understand the roles and functions of public and private agencies in tourism;
  • develop skills in tourism entrepreneurship.


The students should be exposed to fieldwork through excursions to tourism industry sites such as airports, seaports, beaches, landforms, game reserves, national parks, museums, hotels, tour agencies, etc., on which they should be examined as part of their continuous assessment in schools.

The scores for the fieldwork should account for 40 percent of the total continuous assessment scores of the students that will be forwarded to the examining body.


The subject will be examined as a composite paper made up of two papers-papers 1 & 2, to be answered in 2 hours and 30 minutes.

Paper 1:

Paper 1 will comprise 40 multiple-choice questions drawn to cover the entire syllabus.

Candidates will be required to answer all the questions in 40 minutes for 40 marks.

Paper 2:

Paper 2 will consist of two Sections, A and B.

Section A:

Section A will consist of ten restricted-response essay questions, all of which must be answered for  40 marks. Candidates are advised not to spend more than 50 minutes on this section.

Section B:

Section B will consist of 5 essay-type questions, of which candidates will be expected to answer any three questions only for 60 marks in one hour.

WAEC Syllabus for Tourism


  • Concepts
  • Scope
  • History of tourism
  • Types of tourism
  • Tourism and travel business
  • Components of tourism
  • Tourist product
  • Tourist attractions in a nation
  • Tourism statistics
  • Benefits of tourism
  • Festivals and heritages in a nation


  1. Definition of tourism, tourist, visitor, tour, operation, excursion, recreation, leisure, hospitality, travel etc.
  2. Scope of tourism
  3. History of tourism
  4. Types of tourism( domestic, international)
  5. Forms of tourism:
  6. Incoming/inbound, out-coming /outbound, international, domestic, long haul, short haul, business, eco-environmental, cultural, religious/mistrial, sport, youth.
  7. Components: attraction, accessibility, amenities.
  8. Definition of the tourist product
  9. Characteristics of tourist products (heterogeneous, intangible, immovable)
  10. Tourist attractions and their locations:
    • –          natural(national parks, scenic features, beaches, coasts, landforms etc)
    • –          man-made( monuments, museums, palaces etc)
    • –          social cultural( historical monuments, festivals, carnivals, sports etc)
  11. Meaning of tourism statistics
    • –          inflow(arrival)
    • –          outflow(departure)
    • –          expenditure pattern
    • –          data collection
  12. – the importance of tourism statistics
  13. Economic benefits:
    • –          financial
    • –          taxes
    • –          levies
    • – the balance of payments
    • –          foreign exchange earnings etc.
  14. Social benefits:
    • –          cultural understanding
    • –          job creation
    • –          International co-operation
  15. Developmental benefits:
  • (a)    infrastructure
    1. –          road
    2. –          light
    3. –          water
    4. –          communication
  • (b)   superstructure
    • –          buildings
    • –          flyovers
  • (c ) rural development
    • –          preserves nature
    • –          use of land

16. Festivals in Nigeria:

  • –          Argungu International Fishing Festival
  • –          Oshogbo International Festival
  • –          New Yam festival
  • –          Shao mass wedding
  • –          Sharo festival
  • –          Fare Wrestling Festival etc

17. Heritages in a nation

  • –          Sakur world heritage site
  • –          Museums and monument
  • –          Art galleries
  • –          Museums
  • –          Palaces
  • –          Gidan Makama
  • –          Shrines


  • Reasons for travel
  • Travel agency business
  • Tour operating business
  • Support services
  • Public agencies in tourism
  • Private agencies in tourism
  • Tourism marketing


Why people travel

Physiological factors:

  • –          visit friends and relations
  • –          holidays
  • –          health

Economic factors:

  • –          business shopping
  • –          conference meetings
  • –          trade fair exhibition

Social factors:

  • –          religion
  • –          sports
  • –          beautiful natural sceneries
  • –          fashion fare
  • –          education
  • – self-esteem


Meaning of travel agency/agent

The roles/functions of a travel agent

  • –          reservation
  • –          ticketing
  • –          visa procurement
  • –          foreign exchange procurement etc.

Qualities of a travel agent

  • –          resourcefulness
  • –          marketing skills
  • –          honesty /integrity
  • –          good communication skills
  • –          timeliness
  • –          vision
  • –          managerial ability
  • –          good understanding of ICT
  • –          creativity etc.

Definition/meaning of tour operator

Roles of a tour operator

  • –          packaging
  • –          marketing
  • –          executing

Qualities of a tour operator

  • –          honesty
  • –          good public relations
  • –          good marketing skills
  • –          good financial standing
  • –          good knowledge of the environment
  • –          innovativeness
  • –          good understanding of ICT etc.

Support groups in the travel business:

(i)                 financial support: insurance, banking, bureau de change

(ii)               transport facilities/car hire services

(iii)             souvenir shops, e.g., local crafts etc.

(iv)             accommodation hotel and catering services

(v)               health services e.g., first aid, clinics, hospitals etc.

(vi)             security services

Identification and Roles of public agencies in Tourism

(a)    (i) Federal Ministry of Tourism, Culture and National Orientation

(b)   State Tourism Boards

(c)    Local Government Tourism Committees

(d)   Parastatals

–          Nigerian Tourism Development Corporation

(NTDC)- policy implementation

–          National Institute for Hospitality and Tourism              (NIHOTOUR) Manpower development

–          National Commission for Museums and Monuments       (NCMM) Preservation of heritages

Identification and Roles of private tourism agencies in Nigeria

(a)    Federation of Tourism Association of Nigeria(FTAN)- umbrella body for all private tourism agencies in Nigeria

(b)   National Association of Nigeria Travel Agencies(NANTA)- regulates travel agencies

(c)    Association of Nigerian Journalists and Writers on Tourism(ANTWT)-writes on tourism issues in national dailies and tourism magazines

(d)   National Association of Tour Operators(NATOP)- regulates tour operating businesses

(e)    Nigerian Hotels Association(NHA)

(f)    Hospitality and Tourism Management Association of Nigeria (HATMAN)- an umbrella body for all hospitality and tourism practitioners

Meaning of tourism marketing

Tourism marketing strategies:
  • –          segmentation
  • –          mass marketing
  • –          niche marketing(new emerging markets)
Marketing tools in tourism

(a)    electronic media

  • –          television
  • –          radio

(b)   print media

  • –          newspapers
  • –          magazines
  • –          journals
  • –          publications

(c)    fairs and exhibitions

  • –          local fairs
  • –          International fairs

(d)   e-tourism

  • –          Internet services
  • –          e-banking
  • –          e-reservation
  • –          electronic billboard

Entrepreneurship in tourism


  • Meaning of entrepreneurship
  • Meaning of cottage industries
  • Examples of cottage industries:
  • Leather works, ceramics and pottery, bread making, tie and dye, hair        weaving, painting, cloth weaving, raffia weaving etc
  • Items produced in cottage industries:
    • –          shoes, bags, wallets, belts etc.
    • –          water pots, cooking pots, wall tiles, floor tiles etc.
    • –          beads, ornaments, earrings etc.
    • –          clothes, adire, kampalla etc.
    • –          Jamaica beads, Ghana beads, chuku etc.
    • –          Akwa-ocha, aso ofi, aso oke, akwete etc.
    • –          Cane chairs, broom, raffia beds etc.

Service delivery in tourism


  • Meaning of service delivery
  • Service delivery in tourism:
    • –          tour guards, ticket retailers, cooks, waiters, photographers, cultural dancers, drivers, game guards, reservation officers etc.

Skill acquisition


  • Definition of skills
  • Skill acquisition centers in a nation:
    • –          Small and Medium Enterprise Development Agency of Nigeria(SMEDAN)
    • –          National Directorate of Employment(NDE)
    • –          National Institute for Hospitality and Tourism (NIHOTOUR)
    • –          National Institute for Cultural Orientation (NICO)
    • –          Ushafa Pottery Centre etc.


  • Brian Boniface and Christopher Cooper (2001). The Geography of Travel and Tourism, 3rd Edition, Published by Butterworth-Henneiman. London
  • Clins Cooper, John Fletcher, Alam Fyall, David Gilbert and Stephen Wallhill (2009). Tourism Principle and Practice, 2nd Edition, Published by Pehentice Hall. London.
  • Jeanne Semer Purzycki (2000). Travel Vision: A Practical Guide for the Travel, Tourism and Hospitality Industry, Published by Prechentice Hall.
  • John Hibbs (2000). An Introduction to Transport Studies, 3rd Edition, Published by Kogan Yak.

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