Below is this year’s WAEC syllabus for Welding And Fabrication Engineering Craft Practice. Note that this syllabus is for both internal and external candidates.

WAEC Syllabus


There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken.

Papers 1 and 2 will be composite papers to be taken in one sitting.

Paper 1:

This will consist of forty multiple-choice objective questions, all of which are to be answered in 1 hour for 40 marks.

Paper 2:

The second paper (Paper 2) will consist of five questions, out of which candidates will be required to answer any four in 1½ hours for 60 marks.

Paper 3:

This will be a practical test of 3 hours, 10 minutes in duration.  It will consist of one compulsory question for 100 marks.

A list of materials for the test shall be made available to schools not less than two weeks before the paper is taken for material procurement and relevant preparations.


The Council may consider testing candidates’ ability in practical work as prescribed in the syllabus in the event that materials for the actual practical test cannot be acquired.  For this alternative test, there will be one question to be answered in 3 hours for 100 marks

DETAILED WAEC Syllabus for Welding

1. Workshop and standard workshop practices


1.1.           Introduction to fabrication and welding practice.

1.2.           Safety precautions in welding and fabrication workshops.

  • –          Types and causes of accidents in the workshop (fire, explosion, sharp objects, hazardous gases, etc.).
  • –          Accident prevention measures.
  • –          Types and causes of environmental pollution.
  • –          Methods of preventing environmental pollution.
  • –          Safety facilities and protective wear.

1.3.      Workshop layout (fabrication and welding).

1.4 .     Standard welding codes and symbols.

1.5.       First-Aid administration in the workshop.


1.2.1.   Demonstration of the use of protective wear in welding and fabrication.

1.5.1.    Demonstration of the use of first aid in the workshop.

2. Properties of metals and selection.


2.1        Ferrous and non-ferrous metals (steel, aluminum, cast iron, copper and zinc, tin, alloy steel).

2.2.       Properties of metals (ductility, hardness, toughness, malleability, fusion and tenacity, brittleness, elasticity and plasticity).

2.3.      Sheet metal (aluminum, mild steel, brass)

  • – the concept of sheet metal
  • –    gauges of sheet metal

2.4.    Selection of suitable metals for specific jobs.

2.5      Heat treatment of metals (hardening, annealing, normalizing, tempering and case-hardening, etc.)


2.1.1     Identification of ferrous and non-ferrous metals.

2.5.1.   Annealing, Hardening and Normalizing of Metals

3. Tools and Equipment in Fabrication and Welding


3.1.     Identification of tools and equipment for fabrication and welding.

3.2.     Equipment set-up for gas, arc welding and fabrication.

3.3.     Job holding devices for fabrication and welding.

3.4.     Measuring instruments, marking out and cutting tools.

3.5.     Identification of parts and accessories for gas and arc welding.

3.6.     Maintenance procedure for arc and gas (oxy-acetylene) welding equipment.

3.7.     Preparation of acetylene gas from carbide.

3.8.     Types of electrodes and their composition, their application, gauges of electrodes, and selection of appropriate electrodes for a specific job.

3.9.      Equipment for fault detection and troubleshooting in fabrication and welding.


3.1.1.   Student to set up oxy-acetylene equipment

3.4.1.   Demonstration of the use of measuring, marking out and cutting tools.

3.5.1.   Demonstration of the preparation of acetylene gas from carbide.

4. Operations and Techniques in Welding and Fabrication.


4.1.      Types of welding (Gas and Arc welding), explanation of the principles of gas and arc             welding and their differences

4.2.     Description of a typical fabrication process.

4.3.     Types of joints, joint methods and application in welding and fabrication

4.4.     Classification of marking-out techniques in welding and fabrications.

4.5.     Description of the use of templates for fabricated and welded assemblies.

4.6.     Welding techniques and application.

4.7.     Techniques in fabrication work

  • –   Description of folding techniques and their importance in fabrication work.


4.3.1.   Demonstration of various job-cutting techniques.

4.6.1.   Students weld using both leftward and rightward methods.

4.7.1.   Students to work on wire-edge projects.

5. Fasteners

(a)    Classification of fasteners.

(b)    Rivet and its        application

(c)    Bolt and nuts

(d)    Screws


5.1.    Permanent fasteners.

5.2.    Temporary fasteners.

5.3.     Types of rivets.

5.4.      Uses of rivets.

5.5.      Description of bolts and nuts.

5.6.      Uses of bolts and nuts

5.7.      Classes of rivets and screws.


5.4.1.   Students to produce rivets joints.

5.5.1.    Students to produce bolts and nuts.

6. Forging Process

– Introduction to forging


6.1.      Definition of forging

6.2.      Forging tools and equipment (furnace, swages, fullers, flatters and tongs).

6.3.    Forging process

  • –  upsetting.
  • –  drawing down
  • –  twisting
  • –  bending
  • –  forging an eye.


6.3.1.   Students to form an eye.

7. Preparation of welding surfaces and environment.


7.1.    Preparation of welding surfaces by cleaning with a wire brush, emery cloth, files, scrappers and grinding machine.

7.2.    Preparation of edges for welding, e.g., single V, double V, fillets.

7.3. Post-surface preparation

  • –  cleaning the surface with a wire brush
  • –  oiling surface to protect from corrosion or rusting.

7.4.       Defect in welding surfaces (causes and remedies).

7.5.      Definition of the welding environment

  • –  awkward, unventilated, flammable material
  • –  slippery floor (oil/grease on the floor)

7.6.          Surface furnishing for fabrication and welding (painting, metal spraying,                 galvanizing and oiling).


7.2.1.    Preparation of single V surface for welding.

8. Practical Work/Project


8.1.    Marking of shapes (triangle,           square and rectangle).

8.2.    Cutting and bending of triangles, squares and rectangles.

8.3.    Soldering of sheet metals

8.4.    Welding of steel using arc welding.

8.5.    Welding of steel using gas welding.

8.6.    Fabrication of ferrous and non-ferrous metals into required shapes.

8.7     Suggested projects (students to produce the following):

  • –  named plate
  • –  trinket box
  • –  funnel
  • –  kitchen stool
  • –  car stopper
  • –  metal rake
  •  –  scoop
  • –  hinges
  • –  charcoal stove, etc.

9. Business Entrepreneurship Opportunity


9.1.    Definition of

  • –  entrepreneurship
  • –  employer
  • –  employee.

9.2     Enterprises

  • –  small scale enterprise
  • –  medium scale enterprise
  • – large-scale enterprise

9.3.    Factors for setting up a workshop (cost, site, weather, material, manpower, market, source of power, transportation).


9.3.1.   Site visitations to existing enterprises (small, medium or large scale).


  1. Hammers (various types)
  2. Try squares
  3. Chisels
  4. Bending rollers
  5. The combined set of cutting
  6. welding outfits
  7. Bench Grinding Machine
  8. Bench-mounted cone roller
  9. Regulators with flow meters
  10. Electrode Holders
  11. Bench shares
  12. Water to carbide generator
  13. Electrode drying oven
  14. Power Hacksaw
  15. Pillar Drilling Machine
  16. Hand gloves
  17. Vee blocks
  18. Anvil
  19. Smith open forge
  20. Straight edges
  21. Aprons
  22. Swage block
  23. Vice (bench)
  24. Trammel drivers
  25. O2 Cylinders
  26. Chipping hammers
  27. Bench-type Grinding Machine
  28. Left and right snips
  29. Transformers with rectifiers
  30. Flatters
  31. Double-ended buffer and polisher
  32. Straight snips
  33. Hand shield and Head caps
  34. Mole grip
  35. Blowpipes (low and high pressure)
  36. Rule, Scriber and dividers
  37. Gas welding goggles
  38. Sledge Hammers
  39. Files assorted
  40. Hand nibbling machine
  41. Double cylinder Trolley
  42. Plain goggles
  43. Acetylene Cylinder
  44. Wire brushes
  45. Oxygen regulators
  46. G – clamp
  47. Parallel Clamp
  48. Pliers-assorted
  49. Acetylene regulators
  50. First-aid box
  51. Toolmakers clamp
  52. Tongs Assorted
  53. Hoses, Clips and all attachments accessories
  54. Magnetic clamp
  55. Mallets
  56. Hacksaws and blades
  57. DC generators with all connections
  58. Self grip pliers
  59. Workbench
  60. Guillotine
  61. AC Transformers
  62. Folding bars
  63. Fire Extinguisher
  64. Sand bucket
  65. Cramp Folding Machine
  66. Riveting Pliers
  67. Riveting set









Welding and Fabrication

The Science and Practice of Welding

Fabrication and Welding

Basic Welding

The Theory and Practice of Metalwork

Metal Craft Theory and Practice

Metalwork Motivate Series

W. Kenyon

A. C. Davis

F. J. M. Smith

P. Somsky

George Love

John R. Bedford

J. K. N. Sackey & S. K. Amoakohene




Metalwork Technology

Workshop Processes and Materials

Ilesanmi Metalwork for Senior Secondary School Books 1 – 3

G. H. Thomas

J. V. Courtney

Adejuyigbe S. B. and

S. K. Akinlosose

11 Practical Welding  Motivate Series S. W. Gibson and

B. K. Amoako-Awuah

Additional Reading: awajis.com/category/waec



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