Welding Waec Syllabus

Below is this years Waec Syllabus for Welding. Note that this syllabus is for both internal and external candidates.

Aims and Objectives

No published Aims & Objectives.

Scheme of Examination

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken.

Papers 1 and 2 will be composite papers to be taken in one sitting.

Paper 1:

This will consist of forty multiple-choice objective questions, all of which are to be answered in 1 hour for 40 marks.

Paper 2:

The second paper (Paper 2) will consist of five questions, out of which candidates will be required to answer any four in 1½ hours for 60 marks.

Paper 3:

This will be a practical test of 3 hours, 10 minutes in duration.  It will consist of one compulsory question for 100 marks.

A list of materials for the test shall be made available to schools not less than two weeks before the paper is taken for material procurement and relevant preparations.

Detailed Welding Syllabus

Workshop and standard workshop practices

  1. Introduction to fabrication and welding practice
  2. Safety precautions in welding and fabrication workshops
    • Types and causes of accidents in the workshop (fire, explosion, sharp objects, hazardous gases, etc.).
    • Accident prevention measures.
    • Types and causes of environmental pollution.
    • Methods of preventing environmental pollution.
    • Safety facilities and protective wear.
  3. Workshop layout (fabrication and welding)
  4. Standard welding codes and symbols
  5. First-Aid administration in the workshop
  6. Practical
    • Demonstration of the use of protective wear in welding and fabrication
    • Demonstration of the use of first aid in the workshop

Properties of metals and selection

  1. Ferrous and non-ferrous metals (steel, aluminum, cast iron, copper and zinc, tin, alloy steel)
  2. Properties of metals (ductility, hardness, toughness, malleability, fusion and tenacity, brittleness, elasticity and plasticity)
  3. Sheet metal (aluminum, mild steel, brass)
    • the concept of sheet metal
    • gauges of sheet metal
  4. Selection of suitable metals for specific jobs
  5. Heat treatment of metals (hardening, annealing, normalizing, tempering and case-hardening, etc.)
    • Identification of ferrous and non-ferrous metals
    • Annealing, Hardening and Normalizing of Metals

Tools and Equipment in Fabrication and Welding

  1. Identification of tools and equipment for fabrication and welding
  2. Equipment set-up for gas, arc welding and fabrication
  3. Job holding devices for fabrication and welding
  4. Measuring instruments, marking out and cutting tools
  5. Identification of parts and accessories for gas and arc welding
  6. Maintenance procedure for arc and gas (oxy-acetylene) welding equipment
  7. Preparation of acetylene gas from carbide
  8. Types of electrodes and their composition, their application, gauges of electrodes, and selection of appropriate electrodes for a specific job
  9. Equipment for fault detection and troubleshooting in fabrication and welding
  10. Practical
    • Student to set up oxy-acetylene equipment
    • Demonstration of the use of measuring, marking out and cutting tools
    • Demonstration of the use of measuring, marking out and cutting tools

Operations and Techniques in Welding and Fabrication

  1. Types of welding (Gas and Arc welding), explanation of the principles of gas and arc welding and their differences
  2. Description of a typical fabrication process
  3. Types of joints, joint methods and application in welding and fabrication
  4. Classification of marking-out techniques in welding and fabrications
  5. Description of the use of templates for fabricated and welded assemblies
  6. Welding techniques and application
  7. Techniques in fabrication work
    • Description of folding techniques and their importance in fabrication work
  8. Practical
    • Demonstration of various job-cutting techniques
    • Students weld using both leftward and rightward methods
    • Students to work on wire-edge projects


  1. Classification of fasteners
  2. Rivet and its application
  3. Bolt and nuts
  4. Screws
  5. Practical
    • Students to produce rivets joints
    • Students to produce bolts and nuts

Forging Process

  1. Definition of forging
  2. Forging tools and equipment (furnace, swages, fullers, flatters and tongs)
  3. Forging process
    • upsetting.
    • drawing down
    • twisting
    • bending
    • forging an eye.
  4. Practical
    • Students to form an eye

Preparation of welding surfaces and environment

  1. Preparation of welding surfaces by cleaning with a wire brush, emery cloth, files, scrappers and grinding machine
  2. Preparation of edges for welding, e.g., single V, double V, fillets
  3. Post-surface preparation
    • cleaning the surface with a wire brush
    • oiling surface to protect from corrosion or rusting
  4. Defect in welding surfaces (causes and remedies).
  5. Definition of the welding environment
    • awkward, unventilated, flammable material
    • slippery floor (oil/grease on the floor)
  6. Surface furnishing for fabrication and welding (painting, metal spraying,  galvanizing and oiling)
  7. Practical
    • Preparation of single V surface for welding

Practical Work/Project

  1. Marking of shapes (triangle, square and rectangle)
  2. Cutting and bending of triangles, squares and rectangles
  3. Soldering of sheet metals
  4. Welding of steel using arc welding
  5. Welding of steel using gas welding
  6. Fabrication of ferrous and non-ferrous metals into required shapes
  7. Suggested projects (students to produce the following)named plate -  trinket box -  funnel -  kitchen stool -  car stopper -  metal rake  -  scoop -  hinges -  charcoal stove, etc.
    • named plate
    • trinket box
    • funnel
    • kitchen stool
    • car stopper
    • metal rake
    • scoop
    • hinges
    • charcoal stove, etc.

Business Entrepreneurship Opportunity

  1. Definition of
    • entrepreneurship
    • employer
    • employee
  2. Enterprises
    • small-scale enterprise
    • medium-scale enterprise
    • large-scale enterprise
  3. Factors for setting up a workshop (cost, site, weather, material, manpower, market, source of power, transportation)
  4. Practical
    • Site visitations to existing enterprises (small, medium or large scale)


    1. Hammers (various types)
    2. Try squares
    3. Chisels
    4. Bending rollers
    5. The combined set of cutting
    6. welding outfits
    7. Bench Grinding Machine
    8. Bench-mounted cone roller
    9. Regulators with flow meters
    10. Electrode Holders
    11. Bench shares
    12. Water to carbide generator
    13. Electrode drying oven
    14. Power Hacksaw
    15. Pillar Drilling Machine
    16. Hand gloves
    17. Vee blocks
    18. Anvil
    19. Smith open forge
    20. Straight edges
    21. Aprons
    22. Swage block
    23. Vice (bench)
    24. Trammel drivers
    25. O2 Cylinders
    26. Chipping hammers
    27. Bench-type Grinding Machine
    28. Left and right snips
    29. Transformers with rectifiers
    30. Flatters
    31. Double-ended buffer and polisher
    32. Straight snips
    33. Hand shield and Head caps
    34. Mole grip
    35. Blowpipes (low and high pressure)
    36. Rule, Scriber and dividers
    37. Gas welding goggles
    38. Sledge Hammers
    39. Files assorted
    40. Hand nibbling machine
    41. Double cylinder Trolley
    42. Plain goggles
    43. Acetylene Cylinder
    44. Wire brushes
    45. Oxygen regulators
    46. G – clamp
    47. Parallel Clamp
    48. Pliers-assorted
    49. Acetylene regulators
    50. First-aid box
    51. Toolmakers clamp
    52. Tongs Assorted
    53. Hoses, Clips and all attachments accessories
    54. Magnetic clamp
    55. Mallets
    56. Hacksaws and blades
    57. DC generators with all connections
    58. Self grip pliers
    59. Workbench
    60. Guillotine
    61. AC Transformers
    62. Folding bars
    63. Fire Extinguisher
    64. Sand bucket
    65. Cramp Folding Machine
    66. Riveting Pliers
    67. Riveting set


  1. Welding and Fabrication by W. Kenyon
  2. The Science and Practice of Welding by A. C. Davis
  3. Fabrication and Welding by F. J. M. Smith
  4. Basic Welding by P. Somsky
  5. The Theory and Practice of Metalwork by George Love
  6. Metal Craft Theory and Practice by John R. Bedford
  7. Metalwork Motivate Series by J. K. N. Sackey & S. K. Amoakohene
  8. Metalwork Technology by G. H. Thomas
  9. Workshop Processes and Materials by J. V. Courtney
  10. Ilesanmi Metalwork for Senior Secondary School Books 1 – 3 by Adejuyigbe S. B. and S. K. Akinlosose
  11. Practical Welding  Motivate Series S. W. Gibson and B. K. Amoako-Awuah

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