Foods and Nutrition Waec Syllabus

Below is this years Waec Syllabus for Foods and Nutrition. Note that this syllabus is for both internal and external candidates.

Aims and Objectives

  • acquire basic knowledge about foods and nutrition;
  • understand the relationship between nutrition and health;
  • identify career opportunities in foods and nutrition and acquire skills for further studies;
  • apply the general principles underlying meal planning, selection, preparation and serving of food to feed families and other consumers for different occasions;
  • understand the need for planning an efficient and safe kitchen;
  • choose, use, care and store kitchen equipment and tools effectively;
  • appreciate the importance of sanitation in kitchen food preparation and service;
  • apply basic principles underlying food processing, storage and preservation; acquire basic knowledge in consumer education;
  • acquire research skills and use the information to experiment, develop and improve local dishes;
  • set up a business in the food industry using all the basic skills acquired.

Scheme of Examination

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be composite paper and will be taken in one sitting.


This will comprise sixty multiple-choice questions, all of which are to be answered within 1 hour for 60 marks.


This will comprise six essay questions, out of which candidates will be required to answer four. The paper will carry 40 marks and will last 1 hour and 15 minutes.


This will be a practical test of a 3-hour duration. It will carry 100 marks and will be conducted by a visiting examiner.

Detailed Foods and Nutrition Syllabus


  1. Introduction to Foods and Nutrition
    • Meaning
    • Basic knowledge of Nutrition
    • Importance of Human Nutrition
    • Factors Affecting Foods and Nutrition
    • Food Habits
  2. Careers associated with Foods and Nutrition
    • Careers associated with Foods and Nutrition
    • Factors that influence career choices
    • Characteristics required for Foods and Nutrition careers
  3. Basic Food Nutrients
    • The nutrients and their nutritive values
    • Functions of the different nutrients
    • Sources of the different nutrients
    • Dietary deficiencies
    • Metabolism,(digestion and absorption of foods carbohydrate, protein, fat).
    • Knowledge and use of food composition table
    • Food tests: simple physical and chemical tests of foodstuffs to detect the presence of nutrients in foods e.g. proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
  4. Meal Management
    • Meal Planning
      • Meal planning terms
      • Reasons for planning meals
      • Factors in planning meals
      • General principles of meal planning
      • Meal patterns
    • Special Nutritional Needs
      • Nutritional needs for different groups e.g. pregnant, lactating mothers, infants and children, adolescents, adults and the aged, vegetarians.
      • Planning meals for people with health conditions e.g. HIV & AIDS, invalids, convalescents, overweight, underweight, hypertension, diabetes etc.


  1. The kitchen
    • Types of kitchens, e.g., traditional, modern, institutional.
    • Planning different types of kitchens.
    • Factors to consider when planning.
    • Cleaning agents and abrasives (commercial and local).
  2. Kitchen equipment and tools
    • Classes and types of equipment
    • Selection, use, care and storage of large and small equipment, fixtures and appliances.
  3. Safety in the kitchen
    • Types of kitchen accidents
    • Causes and prevention of accidents
    • Content and use of first aid box
    • Simple first-aid treatment
  4. Sanitation in the kitchen
    • Personal Hygiene
    • Kitchen hygiene, e.g., general cleaning, waste disposal, pests, and pest control.
    • Food hygiene, e.g., handling of foods, foodborne diseases, and food sanitation laws.


  1. Animal and animal products
    • Milk and milk products e.g., cheese, yoghurt, eggs, meat, poultry, fish etc.
    • Kinds/types and structure
    • Selection
    • Storage
  2. Cereals/grains
    • Kinds and forms
    • Importance of cereals and grains:
      • versatility
      • thickening
      • cheap source of energy/good source of roughage
  3. Fruits and vegetables
    • Classification of fruits/Classification of vegetables.
    • Structure, nutritive value and storage.
    • Important of fruits and vegetables in the diet, etc.
  4. Legumes and oily seeds
    • Classification of legumes, oily seeds
    • Importance of legumes and oily seeds in the diet, etc.
  5. Fats and oils
    • Kinds and Classification
      • vegetable fats and oils
      • animal fats and oils
    • Uses in diet
    • Uses in the body
    • Health implications of fats and oils
  6. Starchy roots and plantains
    • Types of starchy roots
    • Types of plantain
    • Types of dishes


  1. Food spoilage
    • Meaning of food spoilage
    • Causes and agents of food spoilage
  2. Food preservation
    • meaning and importance of preservation
    • General principles underlying food preservation
    • Methods of food preservation
  3. Food storage
    • Meaning and importance of food storage
    • Storage of perishable and nonperishable foods
    • Storage space and equipment e.g. refrigeration, deep freezer, cupboards, shelves, granaries, barns etc.


  1. Principles underlying cooking
    • Explanation of the concept of cooking
    • Reasons for cooking food
  2. Methods of cooking
    • Moist heat methods e.g. boiling, stewing, steaming etc.
    • Dry heat methods e.g. baking, roasting, grilling, frying etc.
    • Effects of heat on different food commodities e.g. animal products, cereals and grains, fats and oil etc.
  3. Transfer of heat
    • Methods of heat transfer and meaning
      • Convection – liquid, gases
      • Radiation – space
      • Conduction – solid metal
  4. Cooking terms
    • Explanation of cooking terms
  5. Food additives
    • Definitions
    • Types of food additives
    • Functions of additives
    • Selection and use of additives
    • Food adulteration
  6. Flour Cookery and Confectionery
    • Types of flour
      • Types of flour
      • Ingredients in flour
      • Uses of flour
    • Basic ingredients in flour cookery
      • Flour, fat, sugar, eggs
    • Raising agents
      • Types of raising agents, i.e., steam, carbon dioxide and air
      • Sources:- boiling liquid – steam, baking powder – carbon dioxide whisking – air
    • Batters and doughs
      • Types of batters
      • Uses of batters
      • Dishes using batter
      • biscuits – classification
      • rubbed in
      • creamed
      • whisked
      • melted
      • sponge mixtures
    • Cakes
      • rubbed in
      • creamed
      • whisked
      • melted
      • sponge mixtures
    • Pastries
      • Types of Pastries: Shortcrust, suet, flaky, etc.
      • Principles underlying pastry making
      • Pastry dishes e.g. turn, over; jam tartlets, cornish pasties, etc.
    • Yeast Mixtures
      • Definition
      • Ways of preparing yeast mixture
      • Important points in preparing yeast mixture
      • Yeast dishes – bread loaves, bread rolls, doughnut
    • Cake Decoration
      • Types of icing e.g. butter icing, royal icing
      • Uses of icing
      • Preparation of icing
      • Using royal icing and butter icing


  1. Classification of beverages
    • Non-alcoholic beverages
      • coffee and tea
      • cocoa drink
      • milk and egg drinks
      • fruit juices and fruit drinks
      • beef tea and lemon grass
    • Alcoholic
      • beer
      • wine
  2. Importance of beverages
    • Nutritive values etc.
  3. Principles underlining the preparation of beverages
    • Tea, coffee, cocoa etc


  1. Types of convenience foods
  2. Selection and uses of convenience foods
  3. Advantages and disadvantages of using convenience foods
  4. Preparation of dishes using convenience foods


  1. Explanation
  2. Importance of using leftover goods
  3. Rules/guidelines for using leftover foods
  4. Rechauffé dishes


  1. Explanation
  2. Occasions for festive dishes
  3. Types of festive dishes/special occasion dishes
  4. Preparation of festive dishes/special occasion dishes


  1. Entertainment
    • Explanation
    • Types of parties
    • Occasions for parties
    • Points to consider when selecting types of parties
    • Factors that contribute to the success of parties
  2. Table setting and etiquette
    • Explanation e.g. table setting, cover, etc
    • Setting tables and trays for different meals and occasions
    • Table appointments
    • Table manners/etiquette
  3. Meal Service Style
    • Types of meal service
      • Informal meal service
      • formal meal service
    • Factors determining the choice of service styles, types of party
    • Foods for special occasions, e.g., birthdays, naming ceremonies, weddings etc.
    • Factors that contribute to the success of parties


  1. Research into Local dishes and Drinks
    • Importance of research in Foods and Nutrition
    • Collection of information (data)
    • Research into local dishes
    • Development of new recipes
    • Improving existing recipes based on methods of preparation, Nutritive value, time and energy use and service/
  2. Experiments
    • Using fruits e.g. passion fruit, samia, royal palm fruit
    • Other types of flour e.g. root, cereal and legumes, etc.


  1. Consumer Education
    • Meaning and principles
    • consumer agents
  2. Food Budgeting
    • Explanation
    • Factors to consider when budgeting
  3. Food Purchasing
    • Guidelines for shopping for food
    • Guidelines for bulk purchasing
    • Reasons for buying in bulk
    • Advantages and disadvantages of bulk purchasing


  1. Setting up and managing a catering enterprise
    • Explanation of terms
      • entrepreneur
      • entrepreneurship
      • enterprise
    • Characteristics of an entrepreneur
    • Advantages and disadvantages of an entrepreneur
    • Setting up a catering entrepreneur
    • Some catering enterprises
    • Factors contributing to the success of an enterprise
  2. Work ethics
    • Explanation of work ethics
    • Good work ethics
  3. Packaging
    • Explanation of Food Packaging
    • Reasons why food is packaged
    • Qualities of packaging materials
    • Types of packaging materials

Download Complete PDF

View the Foods and Nutrition Waec Syllabus as text below or download the syllabus as a PDF below. Please use the button below to Download offline PDF files for external or internal Waec.

Related Syllabus
action banned!
Scroll to Top